Current Issue
July-December, 2020

Rajiv Gandhi University

Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity

Half yearly Journal published in June and December


Bioresources as Traditional food of Eastern Himalaya: Scientific research and Prospect for development of quality food

Hirendra Nath Sarma




Original Research Article

Human-Asiatic Black Bear Interactions in the Fringe Villages of Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim, Northeast India

Rakesh Basnett, Awadhesh Kumar*, Yengkhom Roamer Zest, Dipika Parbo

Wildlife Resources & Conservation Laboratory, Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology (Deemed to be University), Nirjuli-791109, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/4AK5Q


View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: Human-black bear interactions have been increasing because of habitat destruction in their global distributional ranges. We investigated human-Asiatic black bear interactions from 2016 to 2018 to assess the damages caused by the black bears in the fringe villages of the Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim, India by conducting semi-structured questionnaire survey among 193 inhabitants of 18 villages in the study area. We recorded 393 incidents of Human-Asiatic black bear interactions in the study area. We observed four different types of human-bear interactions viz. (i) crop depredation (62.85%, n=247 incidents), (ii) livestock kill (29.77%, n=117 incidents) and (iii) human casualties incidents (3.31%, n=13 and (iv) properties damages (4.07%, n=16 incidents). Maize (35.62%) and goats (15.52%) were recorded as the highest depredated species in the fringe villages. Most of the crop damages were recorded <400 m and livestock kill between 800m and 1.2km from the edge of the Khangchendzonga National Park. That there is a significant difference in the altitudinal human-black bear interactions (H=6.92, df =7, p =0.438) and maximum (32%) of incidents were recorded in the elevation ranges of 1501-2000 m asl. About 60% of fringe villages of park fall under the high and moderate-intensity zone of human-black bear interactions. More than 50% of respondents have shown a positive attitude towards the conservation of bears when properties are only damaged, but demanded retaliatory killing of bear during human attack (85%). A suitable conservation strategy may be developed for mitigating the human-Asiatic black bear interaction based on the present findings and in consultation with local inhabitants who are the most vulnerable.

Key words: Conservation, crop depredation, human-bear interaction, human casualties, livestock depletion

Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. (Kendu) Population Growing in Jharkhand, India Using ISSR Markers

Amita Kumari and Avinash Kumar*

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Department of Botany, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag, 825319, Jharkhand, India

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/RC37F


View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. (family-Ebanaceae), commonly known as Kendu or Tendu, is an economically important tree species of the Indian forests. Its leaves are used for making ‘bidi’. Besides contributing an important role in the economy of rural people, its leaves, barks and fruits have been used since ancient times in Indian traditional medicinal system- ‘Ayurveda’ to cure a variety of diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the nature and extent of genetic diversity of D. melanoxylon Roxb. germplasm resources, using ISSR markers. For assessment of population diversity status, a total of 48 germplasm growing in 8 districts of Jharkhand were collected. The ISSR fingerprints detected 85.0% polymorphism among 120 genetic loci amplified. Dendrogram based on binary data matrix resulted into 5 clusters. The calculated mean value for Shannon’s index (I), Nei’s genetic diversity (h ), observed numbers of allele (na ), effective numbers of alleles (ne ) was 0.4641, 0.3093, 1.8917 and 1.5302, respectively. The gene flow was estimatedto be 1.6533, indicative of a high amount of genetic exchange within the species. Apportionment of genetic variability by AMOVA revealed that most of the diversity (86.6%) was distributed between individuals within a population followed by among region (12.29%) and between populations within regions (1.11%) respectively. The ISSR markers, thus utilised, proved to be very useful in deciphering the genetic diversity structure of naturally growing tree populations. The results obtained are very informative with regard to not only genetic diversity status but also from the point of view of utilization.

Key words: Genetic diversity, ISSR, Kendu, Nei’s gene diversity, polymorphism

Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Assessment of Crops Cultivated in Ex-situ Conditions of Lichenized and Non-lichenized Soils in Kumaun Himalaya

Balwant Kumar*1, Vijay Arya2 and Mahesh Kumar Arya1

1Department of Botany, Kumaun University, S.S.J Campus Almora (Uttarakhand) - 263601
2Government Degree College Kanda (Bageshwar) Uttarakhand

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/M39PU


View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: Agriculture is one of the major economic sources in remote areas of Uttarakhand. People in this region depend on tree litter for their agricultural manure. In these areas, lichen litter can also be used along with other litter for improving growth, yield and quality of the traditional crops. In the present investigation two important food crops were cultivated in lichenized and non-lichenized soil under ex-situ condition. For this purpose lichenized soil which contains lichen taxa Usnea , Parmotrema and Everniastrum and non-lichenized soil (no lichen mixed soil) were taken. Observations on growth of different parts of plant and yield of wheat and rice crop were taken on the fortnightly interval basis. Total ten observations on wheat crop and eight on rice crop were taken during their existing cropping seasons. In these observations- seed germination rate, stem height, leaf area, number of inflorescence, yield and seed quality of both the cereals grown in lichenized and nonlichenized soil were taken. Wheat crop indicates higher seed germination percentage ranged between 13.2% with Parmotrema decomposed soil to 66.8 with Usnea mixed soil within a period of 45 days of seed sowing. A maximum yield of wheat ranged between 168.4 to 250.0 g/m2 was estimated in lichenized soil. Less yield of wheat was found in non-lichenized soil i.e. 163.1 g/ m2. The study concludes that in high altitude areas where lichen occurs luxuriantly, their litter can be employed as agricultural manure with litter of higher plants. Lichen litter also improves soil nutrients.

Key words: Agricultural crops, lichenized and non-lichenized soil, lichen taxa, observations, temperate region.

Original Research article

Genetic Diversity Assessment of Chickpea Cultivars Using Dof (DNA binding with One Finger) Domain- and Gene- Specific Primers

Saman Siddiqui1, Jeya Nasim1, Hariom Kushwaha2, Mohd Shahab1, Manoj Kumar Yadav3 and Dinesh Yadav1*

1Department of Biotechnology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur (U.P.) INDIA
2MTCC, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh-160036, INDIA
3Department of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, SVP University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P.) 250 110, INDIA

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/3WN9F


View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: Repertoires of molecular markers are being used for genetic diversity assessment among cultivars of different crops. Functional markers represent an important group of DNA markers derived from functionally characterized sequences like transcription factors. Dof (DNA- binding with one finger) is a plant specific transcription factor associated with multifarious activity involved in growth and development. Variability exists in the number of Dof genes and Dof domain in different crops. In the present study investigated the genetic diversity among twelve Indian cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) based on PCR amplification pattern obtained by Dof domain and gene- specific primers designed from in silico predicted 37 CaDof genes. The number of amplicons obtained with different sets of primers varied among these cultivars. The size of the amplicons ranged from 0.2 to 1.9 Kb. A total of 690 bands with 390 polymorphic and 300 monomorphic bands were recorded. The degree of polymorphism ranged from 7 to 100 percent with 27 out of 31 primers while four primers namely CaDof2, CaDof16, CaDof17 and CaDof26 showed no polymorphism. The phylogenetic tree constructed using UPGMA method revealed two major clusters comprising of four and eight cultivars, each of which was further bifurcated into sub-clusters. The genetic diversity studies attempted with selected cultivars of chickpea reveals the potential of using Dof as functional markers and could be substantially expanded by increasing the number of cultivars of chickpea along with cultivars of other legumes.

Key words: Chickpea, Dof transcription factor, functional marker, genetic diversity, polymorphism, phylogenetic tree

Original Research article

Stress Induced Transcriptional Activation of hif-1α and hsp-70 Genes in Air-Breathing Singhi Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis

Tanushree Purkayastha, Deepshikha Keot and Manas Das*

Animal physiology and biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Gauhati University,
Guwahati, Assam, India. Pin: 781014

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/HAEMV


View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: The molecular process that facilitates the adaptation ability of a oxyconformer like Heteropneustes fossilis remains largely unexplored. Air breathing Singhi catfish, H. fossilis generally inhabits the aquatic bodies characterized by low dissolved oxygen levels, a situation of hypoxia. Therefore, this study mainly focuses on the adaptation mechanism of such aquatic dwellers to acute hypoxic stressed condition through the molecular arrangement of the differentially expressed hypoxia inducible factor (hif-1 α )and heat shock protein (hsp-70) genes. Logical reasoning to the facts behind the observed data justifies the underlying evidence of the study. In hypoxic conditions,2.8±0.1 mg/L D.O. and 0.98mg/L D.O. at time intervals of 8 and 12 hours; the transcriptional level of hif-1 α and hsp-70 genes in H fossilis were found to increase several folds when compared to concurrent normoxic controlled fish, studied by the relative expression of qPCR . Simultaneously, the respiratory organ, gills are seen to have significantly affected as a result of hypoxic conditions where 4.02 folds increase in hif-1 α and 1.73 folds of increased expression in hsp-70 genes after 12 hours (T2) of hypoxia were noticed. The purpose of this study is not only to offer intuitions to the adaptation in cellular functions of the hypoxia stressed fish, but also to find out the underlying phenomenon of such aquatic life form to dwell in areas of low dissolved oxygen levels where transcriptional factors hif-1 α and hsp-70 are prime supporters in their survival.

Key words: Adaptation, dissolved oxygen (D.O.), normoxia, hypoxia, qPCR.

Original Research Article

Studies on Prevalence of Thermophilic Coprophilous Fungi Isolated from the Dung Samples of Herbivores in Telangana Region

Shanthipriya Ajmera1*, Divya Ajmeera2, Kadari Rajyalaxmi 3, Girisham Sivadevuni 3 and S. M. Reddy3

1*Department of Microbiology, Palamuru University, Telangana, India- 509001.
2University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Telangana, India-506009
3Department of Microbiology, Kakatiya University, Telangana, India-506009

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/F3K79


View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: The association concerning thermophilic fungi and herbivore droppings provides an opportunity to study thermophilic coprophilous fungal communities in the microbial environment. Herbivore dung has long been utilized as a model for studying the progression of saprotrophic fungi during decay or disintegration. Naturally, the fungal community associated with herbivore droppings particularly depends on the location, environment especially temperature and rainfall, and also the herbivore diet. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the prevalence of the thermophilic fungi on herbivore droppings at optimum temperature under laboratory conditions. They were set to grow on yeast extract starch agar composition, isolated and identified based on their morphological and physiological characterization followed by purification. An overall 30 species of thermophilic coprophilous fungi representing 17 genera were identified and among them 23 species were found thermophilic and 7 species were thermo tolerant. Furthermore, their percentage of incidence, abundance, and frequency were evaluated by applying standard formulae. Our significant study on prevalence of thermophilic coprophilous fungi from herbivore fresh dung was the first report from Telangana. Telangana state is consisting lot of forest region with varied environmental conditions and as well as consisting more number of animals. Herbivores while grazing on vegetation from surroundings ingest various microbes along with their food including thermophilic fungi. Some spores of the fungi survive through entire gut environment of the animal and released outside along with the animal excreta and germinates at favorable conditions and involves in recycling organic matter by their enzymes activity and contribute in the fertilization of soil surfaces in the environmental biodiversity.

Key words: Dung sample, fungal community, herbivore droppings, Thermophilic coprophilous fungus

Original Research Article

Therapeutic Potential of Stink Bug Coridius nepalenseis (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Dinidoridae): An In Vitro Study

Archana Sharbidre1*, Santosh Sargar1, Hiren Gogoi2, Vicky Ambre1, Pranjal Honawale1, Rajendra Patil3

1Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune-411007, Maharashtra, India.
2Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono-Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India
3Department of Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune-411007, Maharashtra, India.

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/D4A3F


View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: Many ethnic communities in the Himalayan belt including northeast India and Bhutan consume the stinkbug Coridius nepalensis . In addition, some other species of Coridius are used as food or medicine in some other parts of the world. However, C. nepalensis was mainly focussed as food insect in previous works. Therefore, to evaluate its medicinal property, present work was designed to analyse the antioxidant, antiglycation and antiamyloid potential of the insect using aqueous extract (CN. Aq. Ex.). Antioxidant activity was studied using ABTS radical scavenging, DPPH radical scavenging, NO scavenging, reducing power and metal chelating power assays. Similarly, Congo red binding assay was used to study antiamyloid potential. Glucose-bovine serum albumin (BSA-glucose) assay and inhibition of fructosamine production were used to study antiglycation potential. Total polyphenol content was also estimated, as certain polyphenols are involved in many of these biochemical activities. CN. Aq. Ex. showed 33.73%, 65.16% and 80.36% scavenging activity for ABTS, DPPH and NO radical respectively. The extract also exhibited 86.10% fructosamine inhibition and 95%  -amyloid aggregation inhibition demonstrating significant antiglycation andantiamyloid potential. The total polyphenol content in CN. Aq. Ex. was found to be 45.19 ± 2.79 μg gallic acid Equivalents (GA equiv.)/mg. Present results showed that the aqueous extract of C. nepalesis possesses significant antioxidant activity in terms of reducing power and NO scavenging. In addition, it also exhibited significant antiglycation and antiamyloid activity.

Key words: Antiamyloid, antioxidant, antiglycation, Coridius nepalenseis, polyphenol

Short Communication

Wild Rats: A Traditional Delicacy and Socio-Cultural Heritage of Trapping Technique in Siang Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, India

Isum Lollen, Ruksar Rukbo, Upasa Gowala, Indira Sarma and Hirendra Nath Sarma*

Department of Zoology (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Itanagar – 791 112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/4GY65


View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: Arunachal Pradesh is one of the frontier states of north eastern region of India. The state situated on the eastern Himalayan region is inhabited by more than one hundred different tribal communities. The Siang valley people are one of the oldest civilizations of the state comprising two major tribal communities namely “Adi” and “Galo”. They are rich in traditional and indigenous knowledge on traditional food, agricultural practice, trapping and hunting techniques of wild animals. Among the tribal communities tradition prevail on trapping of wild rats in forest and agricultural fields. The trapped wild rats are most favoured delicacy and occupy a special socio-cultural status among these tribal populations. The present study has been carried out among the Adi and Galo tribal community of Siang valley. Data have been collected through first hand information from the indigenous tribal community visiting villages in Aalo of West Siang, Basar in Lepa Rada and Pasighat in East Siang district. These communities use different trapping technique for wild rats in wild habitat. Rat meat has been considered as prestigious delicacy and very often the dried animals are offered to dignitaries as gift. The indigenous technique and process of preparation of wild rat meat needs to be documented. Scientific use of the data could find method for pest control as well as new food source for the communities.

Key words: Adi, Galo, Siang valley, trapping technique, wild rat.

Most Related

Most Cited