Current Issue
Jan-June, 2022

Rajiv Gandhi University

Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity

Half yearly Journal published in January and June 2022

Editorial Board

Prof. Hui Tag




Article Content

VOLUME 9 (1): JAN – JUNE 2022


Review article

Taxonomic diversity, distribution, biochemical, molecular and pharmacological potential of Paris L. (Melanthiaceae): a review

Hui Tag1**, Debmalya Das Gupta2#, Dwipen Kakati3, Pallabi Kalita Hui2*

2Plant Systematics and Ethnobotanical Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

2Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology (NIT)-Arunachal Pradesh, Jote-791113, Papum Pare, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

3Department of Chemistry, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

#Equally contributed second first author

*Corresponding author e-mail: (Pallabi Kalita Hui)

**Co-corresponding author email: (Hui Tag)

Article No.: DMJBR38; Received: 20.04.2022; Reviewed: 25.05.2022; Revised: 20.06.2022; Accepted: 25.06.2022; Published on 30.06.2022.


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Abstract: The genus Paris L. belonging to the family Melanthiaceae is one of the important monocot angiosperms with wide range of medicinal and pharmacological potentials. In the recent decades, a surging popularity and demand for dried rhizomes of Paris polyphylla Sm. have been witnessed in the international herbal market which is mainly due to the Rhizoma Paridis based anti-oxidant and anti-cancer herbal drug products of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) rich in bioactive steroidal saponins emanating from China. This has triggered rampant wild collection and pushed the natural population of P. polyphylla on the verge of extinction in the Indian Himalayas, Northeast India, Bhutan, Nepal and China. The present review highlights current taxonomic diversity and nomenclatural status, biosystematics, ethnobotany and traditional uses, global distribution and endemism range, molecular phylogeny and evolution, biochemical profiles, pharmacological activities including anti-microbial, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, and anti-aging potential, mineral ion deposits, tissue culture, trade and commerce, and conservation aspects of Paris L. in a regional and global perspectives. The present review revealed 36 taxa (at species and varietal level) of Paris L. published in various literatures including Flora of China, and now some of the varieties have been found synonymized and merged into 27 species reported as accepted names now found updated in POWO (2022). The Chinese species and varieties of Paris L. have been found extensively studied to date for their medicinal and pharmacological potential. However, there is a need for detail taxonomic and biochemical studies on Indian species of Paris L. including P. polyphylla to unveil their correct taxonomic status, and population status in natural habitats, bioactive phytochemicals, pharmacological potential, cultivation and conservation, sustainable harvesting and value addition, trade and commerce. This article is expected to help researchers, traders and conservationists in realizing the taxonomic diversity, ecological, economic, medicinal and pharmacological importance of the genus Paris L.

Keywords: Paris L.; Taxonomic Diversity; Medicinal Importance; Bioactive Phytochemicals; Molecular Phylogeny; Pharmacological Potential; Trade and Commerce; Conservation

Review Article

Bryophytes in the Ecosystem Services: a review

Nonya Chimyang1,3, Pherkop Mossang1,3, Vinay Shankar2, Heikham Evelin1*, Prem Lal Uniyal3

1Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh – 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, Indiaa

2Department of Botany, Gaya College, Magadh University, Gaya -823001, Bihar, India

3Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi – 110007, India

*Corresponding author email:

Article No.: DMJBR38; Received: 15.04.2022; Reviewed: 04.05.2022; Revised: 21.05.2022. Accepted and Published on 30.06.2022.


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Abstract: Bryophytes, being one of the most important components of biodiversity, plays important roles in the ecosystem dynamics. They render various services to the ecosystem, such as, formation of soil, providing habitat for small organisms, participation in cycling of nutrients, conservation of soil erosion, control of pests and diseases, bio-monitoring of heavy metals. They are also used as fuel, in horticulture and in construction of houses. They also provide services in cultural aspects as well. However, the information is scattered, and a systematic alignment of these services is still missing to date. Present review brings all the Ecosystem Services (ES) rendered by bryophytes in a single platform, categorized them under the different types of ES as well as identified future areas of research. This review can serve as a catalyst to expand the sphere of cognizance towards classical and new research findings of the ES rendered by bryophytes that can be utilized in conservation, restoration and maintenance of our ecosystem and environment.

Keywords: Bryophytes; Ecosystem Services; Nitrogen Cycle; Nutrient Cycle; Ecosystem Restoration; Soil Conservation; Medicine and Culture

Review Article

Hallucinogens and the neuroendocrine system in relation to anxiety and depression: a review

Minerva Lollen1, Madhu Yashpal2, and Pankaj Kumar1*

1Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

2Department of Zoology, Gargi College, University of Delhi, Siri Fort Road, New Delhi-110049, India.

*Corresponding author e-mail: (Pankaj Kumar)

Article No.: PKJBR16; Received: 19.01.2022; Reviewed: 30.03.2022; Revised: 20.04.2022; Accepted: 14.05.2022; Published: 30.06.2022 10.5281/zenodo.8140157

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Abstract: Psychosis is an accumulation of psychiatric symptoms that cause a loss of awareness of reality. It may be brought on by environmental, genetic, or developmental causes, including stress, substance misuse, immigrant status, infection, or the postpartum period. Their potential for logical functioning and reasoning is significantly impacted. In some situations, these effects could be temporary or persistent for a lifetime, and the cause of this anomaly could be genetic, developmental, or brought on by any other outside influences. Individuals under stress in different intensities have been shown to exhibit psychotic-like behaviour in varied conditions, where the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is activated to release the hormone cortisol in response to stress. Additionally, numerous studies have linked the involvement of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) with anxiety and depression, establishing a link between anxiety and depression as well as psychotic disorders. Cortisol levels have been observed to be raised in both situations where anxiety- and depression-like symptoms have been reported in people experiencing psychotic episodes, suggesting that either condition may be a sign of the other. An edible hemipteran insect known as Coridius sp., which is enjoyed locally by the residents of Arunachal Pradesh in India as a winter delicacy, is one such external factor that could cause these psychotic disorders (hallucination/delusion). This particular insect is allegedly known to elicit a psychotic effect on its consumer, causing them to experience hallucinations/delusions, which causes them to act in abnormal behaviour such as attempting to fly, hiding under furniture etc. The metathoracic smell gland, which contains semiochemicals exclusive to insects, is thought to be the insect organ responsible for such an impact. Both the consumer's hormonal profile and the makeup of this particular insect's metathoracic scent gland have not been studied. The causal reason for the psychotic effect elicited by the insect on its consumer is still unknown. As a result, we have attempted to assemble a body of knowledge in this review article that will aid in the study of this phenomena by seeking to determine the relationship between psychosis and behaviours that resemble anxiety and depression as well as its associated hormonal components.

Keywords: Psychosis; Hallucination; Coridius sp.; Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis; Anxiety and Depression

Research Article

Comparative assessment on physiological and biochemical response mechanism in some commercial banana cultivars of Assam under abiotic stresses

Debanjali Saikia1,2 and Bhaben Tanti1*

1Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India

2Department of Botany, Suren Das College, Hajo-781102, Assam, India

*Corresponding author:, (ORCID:

Article No.: BBJBR02; Received: 23.01.2022; Reviewed: 15.02.2022; Revised: 28.02.2022; Accepted and Published: 30.06.2022


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Abstract: Banana cultivation is in great constrain due to wide variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, although abiotic stresses significantly impact banana growth and yield. Assam recorded extraordinary diversity of wild and cultivated banana germplasm. Under stressful environmental conditions, plants altered their physiological and biochemical machinery to adopt themselves to the changing environment. In the present study, six banana cultivars (Malbhog, Seni, Amritsagar, Kaskol, Jahaji, Grand Nine (G9) were subjected to five different types of abiotic stresses (cold, heat, drought, water submergence and acid soil stresses) and their influences in physiological and biochemical parameters were investigated. The studies revealed significant changes in physiological parameters such as reduced RWC and chlorophyll contents in all the six cultivars of bananas that were subjected to different types of abiotic stresses when compared with control. The biochemical constituents such as total flavonoid content (TFC), total carbohydrate content (TCC), total phenolic content (TPC), lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide content were found significantly increased. A significant increase in flavonoid and carbohydrate content were recorded in the cultivars that were subjected to heat and water submergence stresses. Furthermore, a significant increase in ROS (H2O2) were observed while moderate to significant increase in antioxidant compounds (TFC, TPC and TCC) were also recorded in response to counter ROS production in all five types of abiotic stresses induced in banana cultivars when compared with control groups.

Keywords: Abiotic Stresses; Banana Cultivars; Physiobiochemical Changes; Reactive Oxidative Species; Oxidative Stress

Research Article

Diversity and distribution of the genus Rhynchotechum Blume (Gesneriaceae) in Arunachal Pradesh, India

Momang Taram and Hui Tag*

Plant Systematics and Ethnobotanical Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Corresponding author email:;

Article No.: MTJBR09; Received: 20.04.2022; Reviewed: 18.05.2022; Revised: 15.06.2022; Accepted and Published: 30.06.2022


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Abstract: A taxonomic investigation on the genus Rhynchotechum Blume (Gesneriaceae) in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India was carried out during 2018-2022. The present revisionary studies have reported 7 taxa from Arunachal Pradesh. All the recorded species are enumerated here with taxonomic keys and notes based on morphological characters of living plants, along with the distributional ranges and colored photographs.

Keywords: Rhynchotechum, Gesneriaceae, Diversity, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

Research article

Phleobum periplanae sp. nov. and Neohirmorcystis canchipurae sp. nov. (Aplicomplexa: Eugregarinida) from Manipur, India

Naorem Mohilal, Indira Yumnam, Loukrakpam Bina Chanu*

Department of Zoology, Manipur University, Canchipur- 795003, Manipur, India.

Corresponding author e-mail:

Article No.: NMJBR42; Received: 05.03.2022; Reviewed: 30.03.2022; Revised: 15.05.2022; Accepted and Published: 30.06.2022

Manuscript No: SKJBR33; Received: 15.08.2021; Reviewed: 18.10.2021; Revised: 15.11.2021; Accepted and Published: 31.12.2021


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Abstract: During 2012 – 2018, a survey was conducted for the protozoan parasites in valley districts of Manipur. Sample insect, cockroaches were collected using Sweep-netting methods and dissected. Fresh and permanent slides of collected protozoa from the gut were prepared using Haedenhain’s iron, haematoxylin, Giemsa and Eosin stains. Mean, standard deviation and percent of co-efficient of variations were calculated. Two new Eugregarine protozoans namely Phleobum periplanae sp. nov and Neohirmorcystis canchipurae sp. nov. were reported as new to science. Phleobum periplanae sp. nov. is characterized by spherical epimerite which measures 14.7 – 32.6 μm while the protomerite is broadly ovoid, covered by a thick pellicle which measure 26.9 – 56.9 μm. Fresh gametocytes are yellowish- orange and ellipsoidal. Neohirmocystis canchipurae sp. nov. is characterised by lack of epimerites with a trophozoite length of (159.6-192.6) μm. Gametocyst dehisces by simple rupture releasing spherical spores.

Keywords: Periplanata americana, Didymophyidae, and Neohirmocystidae

Short Communication

Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and root colonization trends along altitudinal gradient: a case study in Western Arunachal Pradesh

Minam Pertin and Oyi Dai Nimasow*

Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

*Corresponding Authors email:;

Article No.: ONDJBR32; Received: 25.02.2022; Revised: 18.03.2022; Accepted: 16.05.2022; Published: 30.06.2022


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Abstract: Symbiotic association of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) with roots of higher plants provides a better understanding about their ecological function in the mountain ecosystem. In the present study, we investigated the diversity of AMF genus and colonization efficiency of AMF in the selected five Representative Host Plants (RHPs) growing in the six different mountain forest types along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1000 – 4500 m above msl in West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh. The selected RHP quantified for AMF colonization were, Anaphalis sp. (Asteraceae), Geranium pretense (Geraniaceae), Fragaria rubicola (Rosaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae) and Primula sp. (Primulaceae) and they were selected on the basis of their occurrence throughout the study site. Additionally, colonization was also quantified in composite root samples collected from seven different sites. AMF colonization was observed in the five selected RHP throughout the altitudinal range of 1000 – 4500 m msl. It varied from 10 – 70% with the highest mean root colonization observed in P. major (30%). The maximum AMF colonization was observed in the RHP growing at mid-altitude range (2000 – 3000 m msl) whereas the minimum AMF colonization was observed in the RHP growing at the highest altitudinal range (4000 – 4500 m msl). The AMF colonization in composite root samples also showed the same trend. Our study suggests a significant effect of altitude on AMF species diversity and colonization association in the selected five host plant species investigated.

Keywords: Endomycorrhiza; Glomeromycota; Forest Types; AMF, CRS Root Colonization; Altitudinal Gradient; Eastern Himalaya

Short Communication

Growth and yield performance of Pink Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus eous (Berk.) Sacc. on various lignocellulosic substrates

Titel Megu, Litnya Tangjang, Tenya Rina*

Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

*Corresponding author's email:

Article No.: TRJBR28; Received: 05.03.2022; Reviewed: 10.04.2022; Revised: 15.05.2022; Accepted: 20.05.2022; Published: 30.06.2022


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Abstract: Pink oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eous) (Berk.) Sacc. is one of the popular edible species widely cultivated on various lignocellulosic substrates in subtropical to tropical regions across the world for its excellent taste and nutrition. In this study, we explored some commonly available substrates namely, Paddy straw (PS), Paddy straw + Rice bran (PS+RB) and Paddy straw + Saccharum spontaneum (PS+SS), to determine the most promising substrates for the cultivation of this species. The substrates PS+RB and PS+SS were prepared in a 1:1 ratio based on dry weight. Each substrate treatment was replicated three times. The study was conducted in an outdoor cropping room with a temperature ranging from 20 to 27 °C and relative humidity between 73% and 96%. The efficiency of the substrate was evaluated based on several factors including the time taken for complete spawn run, appearance of pinheads, maturation of fruiting bodies, flushing intervals, cropping period, total mushroom yield (g), and biological efficiency. Among the tested substrates, PS proved to be the most effective, supporting faster spawn run (9.3 days), a greater number of fruiting bodies (46.0), higher mushroom yield (246.3 g), and a relatively shorter cropping cycle (15.3 days). However, in terms of biological efficiency, all tested substrates appeared equally promising for P. eous.

Keywords: Oyster mushroom cultivation, Pleurotus eous, Paddy straw, Rice bran, Saccharum spontaneum

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