Current Issue
July-Dec, 2021

Rajiv Gandhi University

Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity

Half yearly Journal published in July and December 2021

Editorial Board

Prof. Hui Tag




Article Content



Review article

Comprehending the effect of Salinity Stress and Tolerance Mechanisms in Cyanobacteria:a review

Neha Gupta1, Ankit Srivastava1, Alka Bhardwaj, Satya Shila Singh, Arun Kumar Mishra

Laboratory of Microbial Genetics, Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, U.P., India.

*Corresponding author email:; (Arun K. Mishra)

1Authors have equally contributed and 2nd first authors

Article No.: AKMJBR04; Received 30.10.2021; Reviewed 05.11.2021; Accepted & Published 31.12.2021

Received: 28.09.2021; Revised: 15.10.2021; Accepted: 20.11.2021; Published: 31.12.2021


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Abstract: Abiotic stressors, including high and variable salt concentrations, significantly impede the growth and survival of cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria have evolved to adapt diverse aquatic environments with varying salt concentrations. As the salt concentration increases, the cyanobacteria face challenges related to water availability and the maintenance of internal ion concentrations. To cope with these changes, cyanobacteria utilize the salt-out strategy to maintain internal ion homeostasis and accumulate organic compounds to effectively counter salt stress. However, the mechanisms underlying salt stress signalling and regulation in cyanobacteria remain unclear. This may be attributed to the complexity of salt stress, which is characterized by ionic, osmotic, and oxidative stresses, making it difficult to distinguish from other stress conditions. A comprehensive understanding of cyanobacterial salt acclimation will enhance our knowledge of salt sensing mechanisms and enable the better utilization of salt-tolerant cyanobacteria for bioenergy production. Additionally, this understanding will facilitate the application of stress-responsive genes to improve salt resistance in plants.

Key words: Cyanobacteria; Salt-out; Compatible Solutes; Osmotic Stress; Ionic homeostasis

Research Article

Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. and Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey as the potential sources of future drugs for infertility: a review

Pisa Beni1, Madhu Yashpal2, Pankaj Kumar1*, Bechan Lal3

1Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, Itanagar-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

2Department of Zoology, Gargi College (University of Delhi), Siri Fort Road, New Delhi – 110049, India

3Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India

*Corresponding author email: (Pankaj Kumar)

Article No.: PKJBR15; Received: 28.09.2021; Reviewed: 10.10.2021; Revised: 15.10.2021; Accepted: 20.11.2021; Published: 31.12.2021


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Abstract: The changing lifestyle in recent years has greatly influenced the reproductive health of humans resulting in infertility-related problems, globally. One of the prominent approaches to address the infertility issue has been the use of plant-based safe and affordable drugs with no or minimal side effects. Two such medicinal plants, Putranjiva roxburghii Wall., (commonly called putranjiva) of the family Putranjivaceae and Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey (commonly called shivlingi) of the Cucurbitaceae family have been reported. There are reports stating the extensive use of these two medicinal plants by many countries especially India for their general and reproductive health benefits. The plants are an aid to azoospermia, aphrodisiac, menstrual disorder, semen disorders, infertility, diseases of female genital organs, oligospermia, conception, etc. These two plants act as a uterine tonic and help to enhance fertility when coadministered. As reported, the shivlingi is also believed to help conceive a male child when consumed by the female for 1-2 months on empty stomach. No doubt there are several reports stating the benefits of these two medicinal plants in various reproductive-related aspects but there is still a need for scientific work to be carried out to validate and justify the statements and claims made by practitioners or local communities as there are no or few studies being carried out in this area till date. No study shows work on the coadministration of these two medicinal plants. Therefore, extensive research in this field along with proper screening of phytosterols and other phytocompounds is still needed before the declaration and formulation of fertility drugs from these plants to provide hope to couples dealing with infertility-related issues.

Key words: Reproduction; Infertility; Medicinal Plants; Putranjiva roxburghii; Diplocyclos palmatus

Research Article

Reinstatement of Kayea assamica Prain: evidences from morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis

Prantik Sharma Baruah, Bhaben Tanti, Sachin Kumar Borthakur*

Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Jalukbari, Guwahati -781014, Assam, India.

*Corresponding author: (S.K. Borthakur)

Article No.: BBJBR01; Received: 15.09.2021; Reviewed: 05.10.2021; Revised: 15.11.2021; Accepted & Published: 31.12.2021

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Abstract: Mesua assamica, an evergreen tree previously included under Guttiferae [Clusiaceae] is now treated as a member of the family Calophyllaceae (APG III system of classification). The plant was originally described as Kayea assamica but later transferred to the genus Mesua. To overcome the ambiguity, we investigated the correct taxonomic status of the taxa using both morphological taxonomic tools and molecular analysis.

Key words: Mesua assamica; Kayea assamica; micro morphology; trnL-trnF intergenic spacer sequence; phylogeny; reinstatement

Research article

Characterization of the methanolic seed extract of two medicinal plants, Putranjiva roxburghii and Diplocyclos palmatus and its effects on gonads of Albino Mice

Pisa Beni1, Hage Konya1, Suman Kumar2, Madhu Yashpal3, Pankaj Kumar1*, Bechan Lal4

1Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, Itanagar-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

2Department of Microbiology, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College, A.B. Road, Indore -452001, Madhya Pradesh, India

3Department of Zoology, Gargi College, University of Delhi, Siri Fort Road, New Delhi-110049, India

4Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221 005 (U.P.), India

Corresponding author email: (Pankaj Kumar)

Article No.: PKJBR15; Received: 20.04.2021; Reviewed: 14.07.2021; Revised: 10.08.2021; Accepted: 15.11.2021; Published: 31.12.2021


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Abstract: An essential component of reproductive health, fertility, is prerequisite for social, economic and human development. However, a significant section of the population is still infertile with no child due to reproductive-related problems and infertility. Tackling these reproductive-associated problems with advanced clinical tools for the diagnosis of reproductive defects has been a huge task with about a quarter of clinical infertility cases being diagnosed as idiopathic. Despite tremendous advancements in synthetic drugs and modern medical science, traditional medicine is seeing rapid growth worldwide. The expanding perception among people about the potency and side effects of synthetic drugs has led them to be more dependent on natural product remedies for treating reproductive-related problems. Putranjiva roxburghii of Euphorbiaceae family and Diplocyclos palmatus of Cucurbitaceae family are two medicinal plants used by the local healers for various ailments such as gynaecological disorders, and fertility. Hence, methanol extracts of these seeds were prepared and characterized by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Further, two experiments were carried out with the methanol extract of the seeds of these two medicinal plants at a dose of 100mg per kg body weight to observe its effect on the reproductive physiology of albino mice. Experimental mice (Male and female) of two age groups of 3-week-old (Experiment-I) and 8-week-old (Experiment-II) were administered with methanol extract (ME) dissolved in normal saline, while the controls for the respective male and female mice for the two experiments received normal saline for continuous 42 days. Mice were sacrificed at the interval of 14, 28 and 42 days after the treatment. The TLC analysis of the ME showed five fractions which were named as Spot1, Spot2, Spot3, Spot4 and Spot5. HPLC analysis showed the presence of three phytocompounds, i.e., flavonoids - Quercetin (peak 4.867), Tannic acid (peak 2.497) and Rutin (peak 3.440) in the ME of the seeds of the two medicinal plant species. Histology of the liver showed no toxicity at the administered dose in either of the male and female mice groups in both experiments. Histology of the testis showed an increased number of Sertoli cells, spermatozoa and Leydig cells with more vascularization and sperm count highly significant (p<0.05) in ME than NS-treated mice in both experiments. Ovarian histology in ME showed more substantial number of follicles in the stage of secondary antral follicle maturing towards the Graafian follicle with increased vascularization in both experiments. This result is in consensus with the estrous cycle of the females where ME treated mice prolonged their cycle at the estrus phase (heat phase). The uterus histology also showed increased proliferation of uterine lumen with numerous epithelial glands in both the experiments. These changes observed may be due to the presence of the phytochemicals/flavonoids present in the plant extract, which might enhance the reproductive efficiency of the mice. Further extensive research along with a proper screening of phytosteroids of the methanol extract of the seeds of these two medicinal plants are needed for the declaration and formulation of fertility drugs from these two medicinal plants to provide hope for thousands of individuals dealing with reproductive and infertility issues.

Key words: Reproductive Physiology; Putranjiva roxburghii; Diplocyclos palmatus; Methanol Extract; Quercetin; Tannic Acid; Rutin.

Research article

Medicinal plants used by the Apatani and Tagin tribes of Arunachal Pradesh for the treatment of stomach disorders

Rubu Rinyo1, Pallabi K. Hui2, Vineet Kumar Rawat3, Hui Tag1*

1Higher Plant Systematics and Ethnobotanical Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

2Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Jote-791119, Papum Pare District, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

3Botanical Survey of India, Arunachal Pradesh Regional Center (BSI-APRC), Itanagar-791111, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

*Corresponding author email:

Article No.: RRJBR23; Received: 13.10.2021; Reviewed: 25.10.2021; Revised: 18.11.2021; Accepted on 20.12.2021; Published on 31.12.2021


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Abstract: Present study enumerated 16 species of medicinal plants effective against stomach related disorders popularly used by the traditional herbal healers of the Apatani and Tagin tribes of the Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh. We interviewed 35 key informants (15 from Apatani and 20 from Tagin tribes) from 6 villages who were specialized in treatment of digestive diseases. Of the total 16 species recorded, Houttuynia cordata, Paederia foetida and Thladiantha ziroensis have been reported as most potential species effective against severe dysentery, diarrhea and gastritis while rest 13 species were found used in traditional home remedies for constipation, indigestion, liver diseases and loss of appetite. The Allium hookeri, Diplazium esculentum, Houttuynia cordata and Acmella oleracea were frequently harvested and sold in the local market and have been found commercially viable species potential to ensure rural livelihood security. However, Thladiantha ziroensis was found rare in their natural habitat which need conservation attention.

Key words: Medicinal Plants; Traditional Healers; Stomach Disorders; Apatani and Tagin; Subansiri; Arunachal Pradesh.

Research article

Production of biodiesel from non-edible seed oil of Citrus x aurantium L.

Santosh Kumar Dash1, Dharmeswar Dash1, Pradip Lingfa2

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, GKCIET, Malda-732141, West Bengal, India

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, NERIST, Nirjuli-791109, Arunachal Pradesh, India

*Corresponding author e-mail:,

Manuscript No: SKJBR33; Received: 15.08.2021; Reviewed: 18.10.2021; Revised: 15.11.2021; Accepted and Published: 31.12.2021


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Abstract: Majority of the oil seed plants are reported as not fully utilized for economic benefits of the mankind due to lack of technological know-how, and as a result they are thrown out to the environment as organic waste. In the present study, Citrus x aurantium L. (Rutaceae), popularly known as Mandarin Orange cultivated in North East India have been used for extraction of oil from its dried seeds and the physiochemical properties of the biodiesel obtained from seed oil were investigated. The experiment with Orange oil for synthesis in a 2 L capacity reactor reveals that a single step transesterification is enough to produce Orange alkyl ester. Molar ratio 1:09 and Catalyst 1.5 wt% were found to be optimal. Other parameters such as reaction temperature at 65 °C, time 120 minutes and speed 500 rpm resulted into 94% oil yield. It is our suggestion to explore the large-scale production of Mandarin Orange seed oil-based biodiesel, which will promote our sustainable energy goals. It was found that the scope is immense given the consumption of Orange and the oil content of the seeds.

Key words: Citrus x aurantium; Mandarin Orange; Orange Seed Oil; Biodiesel; Energy; Fuel; Diesel Engine

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