Current Issue
July-Dec, 2023

Rajiv Gandhi University

Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity

Half yearly Journal published in July and December 2023

Editorial Board

Prof. Hui Tag




Article Content



Research Article

Traditional ecological knowledge on honey hunting in Singhason Hills, Karbi Anglong district, Assam

Ni-et Teronpi1 and Robindra Teron2*

1Department of Botany, Cotton University, Guwahati – 781001, Assam, India. Email:

2North Eastern Institute of Ayurveda & Folk Medicine Research, Pasighat- 791102, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Email:

Corresponding author email:

Article No.: NTJBR11; Received: 14.04.2023; Revised: 11.06.2023; Accepted: 10.10.2023; Published: 31.12.2023


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Abstract: Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) is the knowledge acquired by indigenous people which is location specific and concerned with their relationship with the environment. Honey hunting is usually practiced among indigenous communities which require skills which is part of traditional ecological knowledge. The present work discusses TEK of bees and honey hunting in Singhason Hills of Karbi Anglong district, Assam. Semi-structured interview, focused group discussion and participant observation were adopted to collect information on honey hunting practices among the local Karbi community. Traditional method of collecting honey, tools used, honey yielding season were recorded from honey hunters. Four honey bees namely Apis dorsata, Apis cerana indica, Meliponini species and Apis andreniformis have been recorded from Singhason Hills. For the ease of collection, honey hunters use plants like Olax acuminata, Hydnocarpus kurzii and Etlingera elatior to pacify the aggressive bees. The risks and unsustainable practice in traditional honey hunting need improvement for collecting pure honeys and the wax. The annual cycle of honey bee migration between plains and Singhason Hills was observed to be largely influenced by the local ecological setting and climatic factors prevailing in the region. The use of equipment and plants in honey hunting trips owe much to the availability of the resource in the local habitat rather than cultural continuity. Validation of traditional knowledge of plants used during honey collection and management of bee venom is primary step in identification of bioactive compounds and protection of medical knowledge and intellectual property of honey hunters. Inventory of plants foraged by honey bees will be helpful in apiculture planning for creating rural livelihood opportunities. TEK of bees and honey hunting will be useful for NTFP foragers to locate honeybee hives and avoid bee attack. This empirical knowledge will be useful for security personnel who, in the line of duty, often had to trek the hills in various parts of India.

Keywords: TEK; Honey Hunting; Honey Bees; Singhason Hills; NTFP; Karbi Community; Assam

Research Article

Diversity of Andrenidae Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India

Chihi Umbrey, Nyabin Riso, Amarnath Karmakar, Hiren Gogoi*

Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono-Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Corresponding email ID:

Article No: HGJBR31; Received: 01.05.2023; Revised: 15.05.2023; Accepted: 17.10.2023; Published: 31.12.2023


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Abstract: The bees of the family Andrenidae are short tongued and categorized under non-Apidae bee group. For the first time, this study reports Andrenidae bees from the northeastern region of India. A total of three species of bees from Andrenidae family, namely, Andrena flavipes, Andrena rothneyi and Andrena savignyi were recorded during a survey in Arunachal Pradesh and some adjoining areas of Nagaland and Assam from 2018 to 2020. They were found foraging on six forage plants, namely, Brassica nigra (Brassicaceae), Coriandrum sativum (Apiaceae), Geranium sp. (Geraniaceae), Persicaria sp. (Polygonaceae), Anaphalis sp. (Asteraceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). The Andrena flavipes and Andrena rothneyi were documented from West Kameng whereas Andrena savignyi was documented from Namsai district, Arunachal Pradesh and all the three species were observed rare.

Keywords: Andrena flavipes; Andrena rothneyi; Andrena savignyi; Andrenidae; Forage Plant; Northeast India

Research Article

Traditional food and medicinal flora used by the Apatani and Nyishi tribes of Lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh, India

Hage Yanka1, Pallabi Kalita Hui2, Arup Kumar Das1, Hui Tag1*

1Plant Systematics and Ethnobotanical Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

2Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology Arunachal Pradesh, Jote-791113, Papum Pare, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

*†Corresponding author email:

Article No.: HYJBR69; Received: 30.04.2023; Revised: 20.05.2023; Accepted: 15.11.2023; Published: 31.12.2023

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Abstract: An ethnobotanical field survey was conducted in the 16 villages of the Apatani and Nyishi tribes of Lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh India during year 2016 – 2022. Ethnobotanical information was gathered through participants observations, focused group discussion, transect walk with informants and structured questionnaire format. The study revealed a total of 177 ethnobotanical species belonging to 58 plant families distributed under 125 genera used as food and medicinal agent by the Apatani the Nyishi tribes. Herbs were represented by highest number of species (103 spp.) which is followed by trees (34 spp.), shrubs (19 spp.), climbers (10 spp.), creepers (5 spp.) and under-shrub (1 sp.). The leaves were found to be the most frequently harvested plant parts with 60 spp. (33.8%) followed by fruits 56 spp. (31.60 %), whole plant 17 spp. (9.6 %), seeds 14 spp. (7.9%), roots 10 spp. (5.6 %), inflorescence, stem and young shoots 6 spp. (3.6%), petiole and tuber 5 spp. (2.8 %), bulb and rhizome 3 spp. (1.1 %), Pods, bark, resin and grass 1 sp. (0.5%). It was observed that the Apatani and Nyishi communities possess rich traditional knowledge related to identification, harvesting and sustainable utilization of the ethnobotanical resources.

Keywords: Ethnobotany; Food and Medicinal; Traditional Knowledge; Apatani and Nyishi; Conservation

Research Article

Embryonic disruption of neuronal nitric oxide synthase alters hypothalamus and gonadal development in mice

Hage Konya*a, Madhu Yashpal$, Pankaj Kumar*, Bechan Lal#

*Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, Itanagar-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

aDepartment of Zoology, Indira Gandhi Government College, Tezu-792001, Lohit, Arunachal Pradesh, India

$Department of Zoology, Gargi College (University of Delhi), Siri Fort Road, New Delhi – 110049, India

#Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221 005 (U.P.), India

*Corresponding Author email: (Pankaj Kumar)

Article No.: PKJBR13; Received: 21.01.2022; Revised: 20.12.2022. Accepted: 26-04-2023; Published: 31.12.2023.


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Abstract: The growing fetus is susceptible to changes in its environment during embryogenesis which can greatly affect its development. The neural circuitries in the brain, along with environmental, psychological, and genetic factors, are responsible for regulating the development of various systems of the body during embryogenesis. This regulation occurs via numerous neuromodulators and neurotransmitters, including nitric oxide, which has been shown to influence embryonic development in mammals. In the present study, male and female mice were time mated in the evening hours (16:00 hrs) and the next day, female animals were observed for vaginal plugs in the early morning. Female animals with vaginal plugs were considered to be pregnant. Experiments were then performed to see the effects of inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) by administering a specific nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole, to these pregnant female mice from embryonic day 11 to embryonic day 17 along with pregnant female mice treated with dimethyl sulfoxide:normal saline (DMSO:NS – 1:1) which acted as the control. Pups born to these pregnant female mice were sacrificed on postnatal days 0 (P0), 7 (P7), 14 (P14) and 21 (P21) to study the changes in the structure of the hypothalamic nuclei and gonad (testes and ovary) physiology. Results show that there were significant changes in the pattern and distribution of hypothalamic nuclei (preoptic area – POA, suprachiasmatic nuclei – SCN, paraventricular nuclei – PVN and arcuate nucleus – ARCN) and inhibition of the development of the morphological and cellular structures of testes and ovaries in the males and females respectively born to 7-NI treated pregnant female mice from postnatal day 0 to postnatal day 21. Thus, it may be concluded that inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase during embryonic development alters the development of the brain and gonads in both males and females by inhibiting the neuronal circuitry responsible for the interaction between the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal (HPG) axis and has a major effect on HPG axis development and its consequent effects in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the inhibition of neuronal circuitry during embryonic development needs to be further elucidated.

Keywords: Nitric oxide, neuronal circuitry, pre-natal mice, post-natal mice, embryonic development, hypothalamic nuclei, testes, ovary

Research Article

Production and optimization of biodiesel produced from seeds of Sesamum indicum L.

Kamesh Singh*, Pradip Lingfa, Nabam Teyi

North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nirjuli-791109, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

*Corresponding author email:

Article No.: KJBR07; Received: 15.04.2023; Revised: 05.05.2023; Accepted: 15.10.2023; Published: 31.12.2023


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Abstract: The emergence of alternative fuels is prompted by the environmental problems associated with the utilization of petroleum-based products and the geopolitical tactics used to manipulate crude oil. Fatty acid methyl ester is the primary component of biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable alternative fuel for diesel engines. Making bio-diesel from vegetable oils is the most effective technique to use them as fuel in compression ignition engines. Animal fat and both edible and non-edible vegetable oils are used to create bio diesel, an alkyl ester of fatty acids. In the present study, biodiesel was produced from a raw Sesame oil extracted from the seeds of Sesamum indicum L. (Lamiaceae) using double stage transesterification process. During the process of experimentation, different parameters were measured such as molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and catalyst concentration to determine the best parameter for optimal bio-diesel yield. The maximum biodiesel yield of 95% was obtained at 1.5% catalyst concentration, 3:1 molar ratio, reaction temperature of 55 minutes. The different properties of bio-diesel like calorific value, density, dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, pour point, and oxidation stability were measured. All test fuels physio-chemical parameters were analyzed and compared with those of diesel Standards (IS: 15607) to decide the rationality of utilizing Biodiesel from Sesame oil as a fuel for compression ignition engines.

Keywords: Sesamum indicum; Biodiesel; Catalyst; Compression Ignition; Alkyl ester; Transesterification.


New sighting records of butterflies in Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

Manab Jyoti Kalita, Malabika Kakati Saikia*, Monish Kumar Thapa, Prasanta Kumar Saikia

Animal Ecology and Wildlife Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Gauhati University, Guwahati - 781014, Assam, India.

E-mail: (Malabika Kakati Saikia)

Article No.: PKGJBR18; Received: 19.01.2022; Revised: 20.04.2022; Accepted 18.11.2023; Published: 31.12.2023


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Abstract: During rigorous field investigations as a part of butterfly research work in Bornadi Wildlife Sanctuary of Assam, from June 2018 to July 2022, three rare species of butterflies viz., Small Grass Jewel-Freyeria putli (Kollar, 1844) and Witch-Araotes lapithis (Moore, 1858) from the family Lycaenidae and Veined Scrub Hopper-Aeromachus stigmata (Moore, 1878) from the family Hesperiidae have been sighted in Bornadi and its adjacent areas along with other species of butterflies. The three species were previously not sighted from this area. Recording of these species within a small area of 26.22 km2 is very important information as they are inhabitants of specific locations and habitat types, recorded only in certain ecological pockets of India and the Eastern Himalayan landscape.

Keywords: Corydalis; New Species; Fumariaceae; Alpine Flora; Dibang Valley; Arunachal Pradesh

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