January-June 2020

Rajiv Gandhi University

Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity

Half yearly Journal published in June and December


Emergence of New Threat of Life and Research for Sustainable Development

Hirendra Nath Sarma


Email: hirendra.sarma@rgu.ac.in


Original Research Article

Physicochemical Properties and Proximate Composition of Agro-Industrial Wastes Appropriate for Recycling and Culturing Earthworm, Eisenia fetida for Aquaculture Nutrition

Sonnia Nzilani Musyoka1,3*, David Liti2, Erick O. Ogello3, Paul Meulenbroek4 , Silke-Silvia Drexler4 , and Herwig Waidbacher4

1Department of Hydrology and aquatic sciences, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya.
2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Eldoret, Kenya.
3Department of Fisheries and Natural Resources, Maseno University, Kenya. P. O. Box private bag, Maseno.
4Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management,
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/UG42N

Email: smusyoka@seku.ac.ke

View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: This study analyzed the proximate composition and acceptability of four agro-industrial wastes i.e. coffee husks (CH), barley waste (BW), kitchen waste (KW), cattle manure (CM) and their mixture (M) by earthworms, Eisenia fetida . The acceptability was evaluated by placing E. fetida (buried in spent vermicompost) next to fresh and pre-composted test substrates (separated by 2mm mesh net), then counting the number of earthworms migrating from the old food to the new substrate after 1, 2, 12 and 24 hours. All the substrates had temperatures and pH within the optimum conditions of 20-30oC and 5-9, respectively as required by E. fetida except for BW, which had a low pH of 4.5±0.2. The moisture contents recorded in all substrates was below the optimum conditions of 80-90% required by E. fetida. In a dry matter basis, the BW had significantly high crude protein (17.87±1.63%) and lipid (8.43±0.93%) and was low in ash (7.23±1.07%) and fibre contents (18.73±1.42%). All the substrates had a C/N ratio below 20, an indication that they are suitable for producing mature vermicast with the potential to increase primary natural productivity in semi-intensive ponds. In the acceptability experiment, most earthworms moved towards M and CM substrates within the first and second hours, indicating high preference to M and CM compared to KW and CH. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the number of earthworms migrating towards all pre-composted substrates. The results showed that BW, KW, and CH has the greatest potential to promote vermiculture and improve aquaculture nutrition.

Key words: Agro-industrial wastes, barley waste, coffee husks, Eisenia fetida , fish feeds, kitchen waste, livestock manure

Original Research Article

Tapping of Resin from Pinus roxburghii Sargent in West Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh (India)

Arpana Handique1, Gibji Nimasow*1 and Oyi Dai Nimasow2

1Department of Geography, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh – 791112
2Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh – 791112

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/UQ46J

Email: gibji.nimasow@rgu.ac.in

View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: India has been tapping resin from chir pines since many years. However, the production has declined since 1975- 76 due to increased frequency of extraction and impact on the health of the trees. Presently, there is deficit in the market demand of resin leading to import from the neighboring countries. Large-scale tapping of resin was reported from West Kameng district before the ban imposed by the Supreme Court of India in 1996. Since then the cases of resin extraction has slowed down but not completely stopped in the district. The present study has been carried out with the objective to understand the status of chir pine trees in the natural condition as well as the impact of resin tapping on health of the trees if any. A phytogeographic survey with handheld Global Positioning System was carried out and 173 chir pine trees were recorded from the study area. The interactions and interviews with the villagers revealed that almost all the matured trees have been used for tapping of resin during the past. It was observed that most of the trees bear the footprints of resin extraction process and are unhealthy compared to the other trees. Moreover, extraction of timber, house building materials and furniture works by the local inhabitants are also posing threats to the tree. Hence, the study suggests imparting awareness and training to the local people for standard procedures of resin tapping. Also keeping in view the multiple utility of the tree its conservation is of utmost importance.

Key words: Chir pine, Conservation, Habitat characteristics, Ethnic uses, Resin

Original Research Article

Nutritional Composition of Selected Marine Fish Species of East Coast of India

R. Kumaran1, M. Thangaraj*2, T. Ramesh2, B. Gunalan3

1Department of Marine Science, Sethupathy Govt. Arts College, Ramanathapuram, Tamilnadu- 623 502
2Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamilnadu- 608 502
3 Department of Zoology, Thiru Kolanjiappar Govt. Arts College, Virudachalam, Tamilnadu-606 001

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/SRGHP

Email: coralholder@yahoo.com

View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: Species diversity in East coast of India includes various important fish that contribute to the diet of many human population. These include Clupeids, Nemipterids, Lutjanids, Leiognathids, Lethrinids, Engraulids, Labrids, Serranids, Scombrids and Carangids. Their proximate composition are discussed in this study. Fish samples were collected from the landing centres of Thoothukudi and Tharuvaikulam during pre monsoon, monsoon, post monsoon and summer to assess the proximate composition. Among the five species, carbohydrate content was between 5.2±0.18% (Pseudorhombus elevates ) and 2.82±0.11% (Stolephorus waitei ); protein content was between 80.25±0.71% (Stolephorus waitei ) and 53.25±0.12% (Terapon puta ); ash content was 1.40±0.2% (P. elevatus ) and 0.51±0.04% (Stolephorus waitei ) and the lipid was between 14.89±0.34% (Stolephorus waitei ) to 7.55±0.24% (Pseudorhombus elevatus ). It was observed that the variation of proximate composition related with the season and the seasonal changes also observed in water and lipid content. When the moisture content declined in fish, lipid content evidently increased in almost all fishes. This study demonstrates that several of the underutilised trash/low cost species are able to compete with more commercially utilised species in terms of nutritional value, and they can definitely also compete when it comes to taste. Data on the sensory quality of these marine species are mainly limited and further development of tools for sensory analysis is required.

Key words: Lipid, marine fish, nutritional composition, protein.

Original Research article

Effect of Altered pH on the Transcription of Aquaporins in Stinging Catfish Heteropneustes fossilis

Priyambada Chutia, Manas Das* and Daisy Brahma

Department of Zoology, Animal Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, India, 781014

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/B5XJ7

Email: manasdasne@gmail.com

View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: Living in a world of water, aquatic animals face the problem of directly interacting with their aqueous environment that differs markedly in osmolality from their internal physiology. Aquaporins are a superfamily of transmembrane channel proteins that transport water and some other molecules into and out of the cell and are found throughout the living biota. These proteins are important for maintaining normal fluid composition, cell volume and osmoregulation and so they are abundantly found as different isoforms and paralogs expressed in different tissues of eukaryotic organisms. pH of a water body can be altered by various environmental factors including pollutants. Both cytosolic and environmental pH is found to regulate the functionality and expression of aquaporins. In this study, we investigated the effect of altered environmental pH on the transcription of certain isoforms of aquaporins in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis , which is a hardy fish that can inhabit swamps, shallow ponds and polluted water. Adult catfishes were grouped into 3 groups of 6 individuals each and exposed to pH 6.4, 8.4 as well as control pH 7.4 with the addition of HCl and NaOH to induce altered pH into freshly collected water. H. fossilis gills, kidney and liver were dissected, total mRNA isolated and the template abundance was quantified by qPCR analysis. H. fossilis aqp1, 3, 8, 11 and 12 showed sensitivity towards acidic and alkaline pH. Aquaporin isoforms are mostly upregulated at the altered pH, tends to increase with increasing pH except aqp12 in the liver of H. fossilis . In comparison to the physiological pH of 7.4, at pH 8.4 most isoforms were upregulated two to eighty folds depending upon the organ in concern. It was also found that longer the exposure time, greater was the effect of altered pH on the transcription of aquaporins, radically altering the mRNA levels by the end of the experiment.

Key words: Aquaporins, catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis , osmoregulation, pH

Original Research article

Variations in Tracheid Characteristics of Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon

B. R. Gogoi, M. Sharma* and C. L. Sharma

Wood Science and Forest Products Laboratory, Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology, Nirjuli- 791109, Arunachal Pradesh, India

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/A2GTU

Email: mbs_madhu@yahoo.co.in

View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon is a fast growing and tropical pine species of Eastern Himalaya.Its natural stands are widely distributed in Khasi and Jaintia hills of Meghalaya.The present investigations were conducted (a) to see radial variation in tracheid characteristics (tracheid number, tracheid diameter and tracheid wall thickness) in different sampling strata i.e. annual ring, early wood and latewood widths of P. kesiya separately and (b) to examine the relationship of tracheid characteristics in different classes of rings with these sampling strata. The study was carried out in cross-sectional discs at breast height of the trees. Radial variation in tracheid characteristics was studied in single radial direction. Large, medium and narrow rings were selected to see relationship of tracheid characteristics with these selected strata. Tracheid characteristics were measured in five radial rows of tracheids per annual ring with an image analysis system. In the study, there was an irregular decrease in tracheid number and increase in wall thickness from pith to bark in all sampling strata. Tracheid diameter did not show any distinct pattern of variation in latewood. Most of the tracheid characteristics had greater coefficient of variations in medium rings than larger and narrow rings. Among the tracheid characteristics, tracheid number was the most important contributor for all classes of annual rings in determining the width of selected sampling strata. Since earlywood and latewood are formed during different seasons and constitute the total ring width, therefore, ring width of medium rings may be the most suitable stratum for dendroclimatological studies in this pine species.

Key words: Annual ring, earlywood, latewood, tracheid characteristics, radial variation

Original Research Article

Heynea trijuga: A Traditionally used Medicinal Plant for Female Reproduction Regulation Possesses Phytocompounds causes Effects on Rodents Ovary and Uterine Functions

Indira Sarma*, Amar Jyoti Saikia, Upasa Gowala, Krishnakshi Misra and Hirendra N Sarma

Department of Zoology (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar – 791 112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/H2U5V

Email: isarma14@gmail.com

View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: Heynea trijuga , a plant with medicinal properties, of which bark is traditionally used as an abortifacient for livestock in Arunachal Pradesh, North East India. The present study aims at studying the effect of the crude bark extract (CBE) of H.trijuga on reproductive tissues in rodents (rats and mice) under laboratory condition. The crude bark extract was fractionated by Thin Layer Chromatography using estradiol-17â as a reference compound. Albino rats and mice were grouped and treated with methanolic extract orally at doses of 500 mg /kg body weight/ day for eight days (two consecutive cycles). A group of treated females were allowed mating to study the effect of crude extract on early gestation. The effect on ovary, uterus of cyclic females and embryo on day 5 of gestation was done by histological observations using H-E stain. Duration of each phase of estrous cycle was recorded by observing the vaginal cytology. Chromatographic fractionation showed three fractions of the crude bark extract. The animal groups treated with the crude bark extract exhibit pronounce changes in the histoarchitecture of ovary and uterus in comparison to the control group. The ovaries of the treated cyclic females showed degeneration of follicles at various stages and corpus luteum. The uterus showed thinning and detachment of the luminal epithelium from underlying stroma which fails to develop endometrial glands. The CBE exerts effects on the embryo and hinders its growth and successful implantation. The present study showed that the CBE of H. trijuga possesses compounds which may act as ovarian steroid receptor modulator in reproductive tissue of rodents.

Key words: Anti-implantation, Heynea trijuga , ovary, steroid receptor modulator, uterus

Original Research Article

Avian Diversity of Barail Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam

Mohommad Miraj Hussain1, Monsoon Jyoti Gogoi1, Biswajyoti Bikomia Deori1, Hilloljyoti Singha1,2, 3,*, and Panna Deb 1,2

1Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University Silchar, Cachar, Assam, PIN-788011, India.
2Centre for Biodiversity and Natural Resource Conservation, Assam University Silchar, Cachar, Assam, PIN-788011, India.
3Department of Zoology, Bodoland University, Rangalikhata Post Office, Debargaon, Kokrajhar District, PIN 783370.

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/WH3DU

Email: hilloljyoti.singha@gmail.com

View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: Barail Wildlife Sanctuary is the only wildlife sanctuary in Southern Assam. It is an important biodiversity area under Barail Hill Range. Except for some sporadic observations, there has not been a comprehensive list of birds in this Sanctuary, which motivated this study. Detail field surveys were carried out between 2014-2018 in this sanctuary covering eleven sites, and each site was visited thrice; all the existing trails were also covered while conducting the surveys. A total of 205 species of birds have been recorded. Threatened status of IUCN, scheduled status of Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, distribution as migratory or resident, status in Assam as common or uncommon, and food habit of each bird species is noted while preparing the checklist. One vulnerable (Great Slaty Woodpecker Mulleripicus pulverulentus ) and six near threatened (Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis , Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria , Grey-headed Parakeet P. finchii , Red-breasted Parakeet P. alexandri , Brown Hornbill Anorrhinus tickelli and Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis ) species were recorded. A total of 134 species were found to be resident, 14 were resident winter migrants, four were winter and local altitudinal migrants, 16 were winter migrants, one was either resident or migrant and 36 species were local or altitudinal migrant, while 24 uncommon species of Assam were also found in Barail Wildlife Sanctuary. The species diversity (H') of the sanctuary was 4.29. The feeding guild is dominated by insectivore species. Proper conservation measures are recommended.

Key words: Barail Wildlife Sanctuary; Assam; diversity, threatened species; birds; feeding guild.

Original Research Article

A Status Survey of the Phayre’s Leaf Monkey Trachypithecus phayrei Blyth, 1847 (Primates: Cercopithecidae) within the Inner-line Reserve Forests and its Fringe Areas of Assam, India

Biswajit Singh and Parthankar Choudhury*

Wildlife Conservation Laboratory, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar (India) 788 011

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/QADG4

Email: parthankar@rediffmail.com

View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: The Phayre’s Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei Blyth, 1847) is one of the least studied species amongst all the primates in India. This is primarily due to its small population size and limited zoogeographic distribution. In India they are found in the states of Assam, Mizoram and Tripura and in Southern Asia (Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam). The present work is in the fragmented areas of Barak valley of Southern Assam, India where there is rapid settlement of human population. This is the first systematic study on the distribution and population size of the Phayre’s leaf monkey in the Inner-line Reserve Forest, Cachar, Assam and in the fringe areas outside the ILRF. A study on the distribution and population size of the species was conducted from September 2015 to August 2018 in four localities from ILRF and seven localities in the forest fringe areas outside the protected area, using the stratified random method. Transect method was followed, supplemented by sign searches and villagers’ information. Nine troops comprising 156 individuals i.e., four troops (37 individuals) from ILRF and seven troops (119 individuals) from outside the ILRF were recorded. A comparison was made in the population of this species in some of the same sites like Silcoorie TE, Iringmara TE and Allenpur where a similar work was carried out 14 years ago and found increase in their population. Habitat loss, livestock grazing, timber loggings etc. were observed the major anthropogenic interferences and issues of concern related to conservation.

Key words: Habitat fragmentation, Inner-line Reserve Forests, Phayre’s leaf monkey, primates.

Original Research Article

Isolation, Growth and Characterization of Lipids from Pandorina morum for Biofuel Production

Sachin S. Patavardhan*1, Jyothi Miranda2, Shashi Kiran Nivas1

1Laboratory of Applied Biology, St Aloysius College, Mangaluru 575003.
2Department of Botany, St Aloysius College, Mangaluru 575003.

DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/XYT2B

Email: sachin271093@gmail.com

View Abstract | PDF

Abstract: To meet the growing global energy demand, nations worldwide have considered renewable sources of fuel to offset the dependence on non-renewable sources like fossil fuels. Microalgal lipids can be exploited to produce oil, and to meet energy demands. The indigenous species can be studied for their efficiency in biomass and lipid production. This could minimize the growth and harvesting costs and thereby increasing the overall efficiency of biofuel production. In the present study, a locally well growing freshwater green alga Pandorina morum was isolated and studied its biomass and lipid yielding potential. Preliminary screening for the presence of lipids was carried out by staining the algal cells with Nile red dye. Presence of yellow globular structures indicated the presence of intercellular lipid droplets. FTIR analysis of the extract confirmed the presence of lipids. Growth studies in different media such as Chu- 10, Bold’s Basal Medium and BG-11 were conducted. BG11 was found to be best medium to obtain maximum biomass. Total lipid was estimated using Bligh and Dyer extraction method. Extracted lipids were transesterified and qualitatively analyzed by GC-MS. The highest biomass production was observed in BG-11 medium with 2.0 × nitrate concentration (0.1884±0.09 g L-1day-1). The highest yield of lipid was noted in BG-11 medium with 0.5 × nitrate concentration (15.6888±0.21% of lipids by dry mass basis). The GCMS analysis revealed high abundance of hexadecenoic acid methyl ester. Nitrogen starvation increased lipid productivity with compromised biomass production. Growth conditions were studied to maximize biomass and lipid production. Aeration and polymer substrate were found to be helpful to increase the yield. P.morum showed promising growth and lipid yielding characteristics in optimized growth conditions, which could be further investigated to produce commercial quality-biofuel in accordance to biofuel standards.

Key words: Biofuel, lipids, microalgae, nutrient stress, Pandorina

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