Volume 6- Number 1
January-June 2019

Rajiv Gandhi University

Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity

Half yearly Journal published in June and December

Review Article

Perspectives of Higher Vertebrates in Arunachal Himalaya Biodiversity Hot spot: A Review

Neelam Yania* and Hirendra Nath SarmaDepartment of Zoology (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Itanagar - 791 112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 6(1): 1-14 (2019)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: neelamyania18@gmail.com

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Abstract: Arunachal Pradesh is in the easternmost and the largest among the North Eastern region of India covering an area of 83,743 sq.km. It is situated between 26030' - 29030' N and 91030' - 97030' E. The state lies between transition Zone of Indo-Chinese, Indo-Malayan and part of Indo-Burmese region and due to its strategic bio-geographic location, it depicts the phenomenon of edge effects or law of interspersion where ecotones or edges are comparatively richer in wildlife than participating regions. It is perhaps the richest biodiversity state with wide altitudinal variations, high rainfall, varied soil structure and different climatic regimes from temperate to alpines. Owing to its unique biodiversity, it has already gained the status of Mega - Biodiversity Hotspot in the world. The state has the highest protected area network in India. An area of 10,079.14 sq.km constituting 12 per cent of the total geographical area of the state has been brought under PAN. State has 11 Wildlife Sanctuaries and 2 National Parks. It is the only state in India were three goat antelopes Naemorhedus goral, Naemorhedus sumatraensis and Budorcas taxicolor are found and it also has the pride of harbouring four big cats: Tiger, Leopard, Clouded Leopard and Snow Leopard. The 3 bear species, Asiatic black bear, Sloth bear and Sun bear recorded from North-east are all found in Arunachal Pradesh. The recent entrant to higher vertebrates, white cheeked macaque Macaca leucogenys and Himalayan forest thrush Zoothera salimalii has been recorded from this state. Due to its unique location, vast areas, thin human populations and being second largest forest cover in India, one can still hope to find new species unknown to rest of the world.

Key words: Arunachal Pradesh, biodiversity Hot spot, eastern Himalaya, endemic species, higher vertebrates

Review article

Traditional Medicines and Women Reproductive Health: An Alternative to Modern Synthetic Drugs

Purba J Saikia1*, Dimpimoni Das2, Juli Bairagi1, Freeman Boro1 and Ajit Hazarika1

1Advance Institutional Biotech Hub, Department of Zoology, Chaiduar College, Gohpur - 784168, Assam, India 2 Molecular Endocrinology and Reproductive Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 6(1): 15-25 (2019)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: purbajyoti81@gmail.com

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Abstract: Medicinal plants are rich repository of phytocompounds having the properties to cure various ailments and play pivotal role in the maintenance of health especially among the indigenous people living with the nature. These people have been relying on traditional medicine both plant and animal origin since time immemorial as the modern medical facilities is not easily accessible. The indigenous people explore the nature and natural resources for their livelihood and they acquired tremendous knowledge on the medicinal properties of the natural products. The traditional medicines especially the medicinal plants used by the indigenous people are not only used to cure ailments but also to maintenance and regulation of reproductive health. Certain plant and plant products are used for regulation of women reproductive health by the indigenous tribal peoples around the globe. There are many medicinal plants used traditionally by the indigenous people that have efficacy to regulate reproductive system both in human and domestic animals. This ethno-medicinal information emerged from the age old traditional knowledge system leads to the development of new drugs with lesser or no side effects. Thus traditional medicine become the promising field for the scientists for developing new compounds for improving human health especially female reproductive health without the using synthetic drugs which have several significant side effects. The modern medical science developed and provides a number of synthetic compounds to regulate the reproductive health of women in the form of contraceptives and abortificants to avoid unintended pregnancy. However, these synthetic medicines have lots of side effects causing serious issues to the women health. Therefore, alternative traditional-based herbal formulation for reproduction regulation is the priority of scientific research during last few decades. In the present review, an attempt has been made to portray the importance of medicinal plants for reproductive health.

Key words: Contraceptive, Medicinal plants; Phytoestrogen, Reproductive Health, Traditional medicine

Original Research Article

Identification of Phytoconstituents Present in Himalayan Garcinia (Garcinia xanthochymus)–Through GC-MS Studies

Bipul Ch. Kalita1*, Debmalya Das Gupta2, Hui Tag1 and Arup K. Das1

1Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India. 2Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, Yupia- 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

Journal of Bioresources 6(1): 26-35 (2019)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: bipulchandrakalita@gmail.com

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Abstract: Garcinia xanthochymus (Clusiaceae) is one of important medicinal plant of this large genus that is native to some Asian countries. The plant has been traditionally used in medicines for treating a wide variety of ailments viz. diarrhoea, dysentery, nausea and vomiting and its fruits are edible and is used in a variety of ways. The present study was intended to check the phytoconstituents of the leaves of this species using GC-MS studies and to find out the biological/pharmacological activity of each of the phytoconstituent through literature corroboration. GCMS-2010 with Restek-5MS column (30m X 0.25mm film thickness 0.25μm) was used for the study. The injector temperature was 260oC. Helium was used as carrier gas with flow rate of 1.21 ml/min. Interpretation on mass spectrum GC-MS was conducted using the database of National Institute Standard and technology (NIST), Dr. Duke’s phytochemical ethnobotanical databases and previous literature studies. GC-MS studies showed a total of 35 compounds and a total of 10 major peaks were obtained. The major compounds found were Lanosterol (19.23%), Squalene (14.20%), 4,4a,6b, 8a,11,11,12b,14a-octamethyl-eicosahyd (6.14%), lupeol (3.13%), Olean- 12-en-28-oic acid, 2- -3- -23-trih (2.33%), Stigmasterol (1.97%), Vitamin E (1.54%), Tricyclo [,8)]tetradecan-3-ol-9- one,4-E (1.38%), Solanesol (1.34%) and N-hexadecanoic acid (1.17%). Some minor phytoconstituents such as Neophytadiene (0.89%), γ -tocopherol (0.82%), Humulane-1,6-dien-3-ol (0.80%), 2-Hexadecan-1-ol 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl R-[R](0.79%), Isolongifolol heptafluorobutyrate (0.71%) were also reported. The present study throws a light on the potential of such phytocompounds present in this species that could play a pivotal role in future herbal medicines and newer drug discoveries with minimal side effects.

Key words: Garcinia xanthochymus, GC-MS, lanosterol, phytoconstituent.

Original Research Article

Ethnobotanically Important Plants Used by the Nocte Tribe of Eastern Himalaya

Tonlong Wangpan*, Nonya Chimyang, Chatam Lowang, Tapi Taka, Jentu Giba, Phongam Tesia and Sumpam Tangjang

Department of Botany (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh - 791 112, Arunachal Pradesh

Journal of Bioresources 6(1): 36-45 (2019)     ISSN 2394-4315

Email: twangpan@gmail.com

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Abstract: Ethnic communities around the world has survived their hardest time, depending on plant based food, clothing and shelter. Likewise, the Noctes of Eastern Himalayan region are considered as an expert bioresource manager. An ethnobotanic field study was conducted in Nocte dominated remote hills and data was generated accordingly. The study has recorded a total of 48 plant species, of which, the most commonly found species belonged to family Moraceae and maximum of the collected plants were trees. The majority of the ethnic folks of this region used leaves (25.45%) for various purposes; whereas, roots, petioles and whole-plant were scored to be the least. Though maximum of these plants were used as food and medicine, some of the collected plants also have multiple utility such as food-beverages, food-medicine, and food-oil. Among all the collected plants, Gynocardia odorata was reported with the highest UVC scores of 96.67%. These plants were also traded in local markets in exchange for financial security. It would be essential to carry out studies on the nutritional values of these plants. In addition, validation of the collected medicinal plants seeks further in vitro researches. The knowledge on the use of these plants are also waning away alongside the older generation. Thus, the awareness on the conservation and sustainable management of these bioresources and further exploration in neighbouring areas is important.

Key words: Ethnobotany, indigenous tribes, traditional knowledge, wild edible plants.

Original Research Article

Threshold Dose Determination of Estrogenic Property using Morphometric Analysis of Mice Uterine Epithelial Proliferation and Study of Hepatic Toxicity of Scoparia dulcis L. Extract.

Indira Sarma*, Khamhee Wangsa and Hirendra Nath Sarma

Department of Zoology, Molecular Endocrinology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Itanagar - 791 112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 6(1): 46-55 (2019)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: isarma14@gmail.com

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Abstract: Ethnomedicinal plants have been the source of various therapeutic agents from time immemorial. Scoparia dulcis Linn., a commonly occurring plant in India is found to have potential in treatment of diabetes, kidney disorder and also found to possess abortifacients, antioxidant properties. This plant is also found to be used for treating menstrual disorder among women of Northeast India. The present study was designed to examine the threshold dose and estrogenic effect of crude plant extract of Scoparia dulcis in vivo. A suspension of methanolic crude extract was orally administered at doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg kg-1 body weight day-1 for two consecutive estrous cycles to albino mice. The threshold dose from the cyclic group was administered orally to Ovariectomized (OVX) mice for three consecutive days and was compared with OVX (Vehicle treated) and OVX-Estradiol-17 (E2) treated mice. The estrogenic effect of Scoparia dulcis on uterus was evaluated by performing uterotrophic histopathological examination in both cyclic and ovariectomized mouse models. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (p< 0.05). Compared to cyclic control group, Scoparia dulcis extract treated groups exhibit pronounced increase in uterine epithelial proliferation. The uterine epithelium showed significant increase in thickness at the dose of 500mg/kg body weight/day and 750mg/kg body weight/day. The 250mg/kg body weight/day showed results which were insignificant when compared to the control group. The threshold dose was found to be 500mg/kg body weight/day. In the OVX group, the mice treated with the threshold dose (500mg/kg bodyweight/day) of Scoparia dulcis extract showed notable increase in the epithelial thickness in comparison to the OVX vehicle treated mice. The increase is similar to the OVX-E2 treated group (negative control). No toxicity in the hepatic tissues were seen in the studied doses of the extract. Scoparia dulcis treated group also exhibited increased vaginal cornification rate. Methanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis significantly increased the uterine epithelial proliferation and also the rate of showing the presence of efficient estrogenic compounds, which can be used as phytoestrogenic alternative to synthetic Estradiol-17 in near future.

Key words: Estrous cycle; endometrial epithelium; proliferation; Scoparia dulcis ; uterotrophic assay

Original Research Article

Sauromatum horsfieldii Miquel (Araceae-Areae): An Addition to the Flora of Arunachal Pradesh

Atek Nangkar and Hui Tag*

Department of Botany, Plant Systematics and Ethanobotanical Research Laboratory (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 6(1): 56-60 (2019)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: huitag2008rgu@gmail.com

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Abstract: The Araceae family is one of the largest families of phanerogams (flowering plant) and is unexplored only few taxonomic studies have been done in Arunachal Pradesh. Family araceae is unexplored and less studied in Arunachal pradesh and India as whole. A first hand survey and documentation for the species under this family has been conducted in Arunachal Pradesh from May, 2014 to December, 2018. The phytogeography of Arunachal fall under tropical to temperate region, altitude ranges from 150 to 3500m above means sea level, with high rainfall and different forest type which is favorable for luxuriant growth of aroids plants, this favors and highly expected finding of new species. During botanical field exploration the one aroid species is collected from Mebo, a village of East Siang district. The plants is commonly growing in tropical degraded or secondary forest, altitudinal range between 282 to 450m (msl). Critical analysis of taxonomic and literature study, the plant is recognized as Sauromatum horsfieldii genus sauromatum schott belong to family Araceae. The species is undescribed taxa in Arunachal Pradesh and reported to be new species and added to the flora of Arunachal. Out of twenty five districts of Arunachal, Sauromatum horsfieldii Miquel, is found in two districts only. The plant is also reported from Nagaland one of the north eastern state of India. The species is not reported from rest of India, it concluded tha species is endemic to north eastern states till further report from part of India. A detailed description, drawing and living color photographic illustration, GPS record is provided along with key to species of Arunachal Saroumatum schott.

Key words: Araceae family, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Sauromatum horsefieldii

Original Research Article

In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile from Lakhimpur District, Assam

Ayam Victor Singh* and Pinki Gogoi

Department of Botany (Center with potential for Excellence in Biodiversity) Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh-791112, India.

Journal of Bioresources 6(1): 61-65 (2019)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: victor_ayamsingh@yahoo.com

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Abstract: Medicinal plants are the sources of almost all types of bioactive compounds that are needed for curing many human diseases. The plant Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile is a shrub grown in wild habitat with beautiful yellow coloured flowers. The plant is well known as "Tarua Kadam" in the Assamese community of Brahmaputra Valley. Bark of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile plant is used by many people of Assam locally to treat stomach related disorders like diarrhea, abdominal pain and in the treatment of female reproductive problem such as menstrual pain etc. Traditionally, the patient is prescribed to take aqueous crude bark extract orally to cure stomach ailments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of the bark of Acacia nilotica plant. Antioxidants can inhibit the oxidation activity of free radicals that are responsible for various degenerative diseases. The antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhyrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity method with L-ascorbic acid as a reference compound. Seven different fraction of sample extract were made in methanol such as 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125 and 1.562 μg/ml and absorbance were taken using Thermo multiskan spectrophotometer at 517 nm wave length. The antioxidant activity of the crude extract of A. nilotica was calculated as IC50 value against DPPH free radicals. Result shows a positive co-relation between the standard and crude sample with IC50 of 7.038 μg/ml and 32.116 μg/ml respectively. The result indicates the bark of A. nilotica to possess significantly high antioxidant activity.

Key words: Acacia nilotica , antioxidant activity, DPPH, free radical scavenging activity, IC50 value, methanolic extract.

Short Communication

Shifting Cultivation: Towards Transformative Change with Special Emphasis on North East India

Ratna Bhuyan*

National Institute of Rural Development & Panchayati Raj, North Eastern Regional Centre, Guwahati, Assam, India.

Journal of Bioresources 6(1): 66-70 (2019)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: bhuyanmamu@gmail.com

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Abstract: Despite changes in the socio-economic sphere of the tribal communities across North East India, shifting cultivation continues to play an important role in providing livelihoods and food security to the rural tribal communities. For these tribal communities, the importance of shifting cultivation is beyond economic concerns. Though with government interventions and under innovative shifting cultivation, the farmers have taken to newer methods of cultivation, the transformative change to other diversified livelihoods needs to accommodate the needs of the growing tribal population. The paper is a short commentary on the continuance of the practice of shifting cultivation in North East India in the light of the transformative change taking place amidst rural tribal communities engaged in shifting cultivation.

Key words: Alternate diversified livelihoods, shifting cultivation, sustainability, tribal communities.

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