Current Issue
July-December 2018

Rajiv Gandhi University

Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity

Half yearly Journal published in June and December

Review Article

Structure and Pharmacological Properties of Some Snake Venom Protein Families with Special Reference to Kunitz-Type Serine Protease Inhibitors

Simran Kaur and Robin Doley*

Molecular Toxinology Lab, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam-784028, India

Journal of Bioresources 5(2): 1-23 (2018)    ISSN 2394-4315


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Abstract: Snake venom consists of a large repertoire of pharmacologically active proteins and peptides that play a significant role in capture, immobilization and digestion of prey. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic toxins exist in snake venom which contributes to the overall toxicity during envenomation. A deep understanding of toxin composition as well as structure and function properties of the families is a pre-requisite to understand the pathophysiological conditions during bite and to combat post-bite consequences in victims. Moreover, this goldmine of proteins can be explored for drug development or its prototype if their functional properties are deciphered at the molecular level. In the recent past, using high throughput technologies the complexities of snake venom has been deciphered to a great extent. This has helped in understanding the variation in venom composition for development of effective strategies to combat envenomation. In this review, the structural and functional aspects of some of the major snake venom toxin families have been summarized. Among the enzymatic proteins, phospholipase A2, acetylcholinesterase, snake venom thrombin-like enzymes, snake venom metalloproteinase, hyaluronidase are discussed and other non-enzymatic toxins like three finger toxins, snaclecs, cysteine-rich secretory proteins and Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors are also described. In addition, the mechanism of action and pharmacological effects of some toxins are also discussed in this review. Further research on snake venom in deciphering its complex composition, understanding the underlying mechanism of action would help in developing toxin-specific antibodies.

Key words: Snake venom, enzymatic toxins, non-enzymatic toxins, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors.

Original Research Article

Zooplankton Diversity and Limnological Parameters in River Sal, Goa

Fernandes Alisha and I. K. Pai*

Department of Zoology, Goa University, Goa-403206, India

Journal of Bioresources 5(2): 24-32 (2018)    ISSN 2394-4315


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Abstract: Water is the key substance for the survival of all living organisms. The quality of water in terms of physicochemical parameters affect the conditions for the existence of zooplankton. India is blessed with thousands of water bodies, both large and small, ranging from pond to large lakes, rivers and streams of lentic or lotic nature. Despite several studies, still a large number of them are virgin and yet to be studied. Hence studies on the diversity and seasonal abundance of zooplankton in river Sal, one of the lesser known rivers of Goa was carried out. Analyses of physicochemical parameters showed the following range: Temperature (24.5-30oC), pH (6.60-8.0), EC (17782-52845), total alkalinity (36.03-1188.33mg/l), DO (3.96-7.10mg/l), turbidity (10.35-34.12NTU), nitrates, (0.07-1.94 mg/l), phosphates (0.01-0.19 mg/l), calcium (15.76-1438 mg/l) and magnesium (1.93-240 mg/l). A total of 30 species belonging to Cladocera (10 sps.), Copepoda (9 sps.), Rotifera (9 sps.) and Ostracoda (2 sps.) were identified. Rotifers showed dominance in number followed by Copepoda, Cladocera and Ostracoda. The percentage of zooplankton population was highest (45%) during the pre-monsoon and lowest (22%) during the monsoon period. The observations further reveal the presence of Alona quadrangularis only during the monsoon season whereas Mesocyclops hyalinus and Testudinella patina only during the post-monsoon season. Shannon-Wiener Index, Simpsons diversity index, Margalef’s richness index and equitability were calculated for zooplankton diversity in this river. No vast variation was observed in the Shannon diversity index (H). Taxa richness was the least in the monsoon season while pre-monsoon season accounted for the highest diversity.

Key words: Physicochemical, river Sal, seasonal variation, zooplankton

Original Research Article

Immunolocalization of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C (VEGF-C) and its Receptor (Flk-1/KDR) in Preimplantation Mice Uterus: An in situ Investigation

Dimpimoni Das, *Purba J Saikia & Hirendra N Sarma

Department of Zoology, Molecular Endocrinology and Reproductive Biology Research Laboratory, Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 5(2): 33-43 (2018)    ISSN 2394-4315


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Abstract: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor commonly known as VEGF is a heparin binding homodimeric glycoprotein. It is a potent mitogenic factor responsible for vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. VEGF family consists of five members out of which VEGF-C is responsible for both angionenesis and lymphangiogenesis. However, the precise function of VEGF on early pregnancy associated events is still not clear. In our previous work, we showed the expression of VEGF-C in uterine tissues and fetal-maternal interface during periimplantation period (Day4-Day7) in mice. During the present research work, we are showing the expression of VEGF-C and its receptor Flk-1/KDR in preimplantation mice uterus from day1-day4 of gestation. Immunolocalization of VEGF-C and Flk-1/KDR was performed in paraffin embedded tissue sections using monoclonal primary antibody and HRP-conjugated and FITC-conjugated secondary antibody. Quantification of immune-signal was analyzed by ImageJ software. During the present study it was found that VEGF-C and Flk-1/KDR expressed in the uterus on D1 to D4 of gestation with differential intensity. This result suggests the involvement of VEGF and its receptor system in the uterine remodelling prior to the embryo implantation.

Key words: Angiogenesis, Flk-1/KDR, preimplantation, uterus, VEGF-C.

Original Research Article

Tick an ectoparasite: A Case study on Mithun and Cow from Kaying circle of Arunachal Pradesh, India

Pappi Yaying1, Debabrata Phukon2, Abprez T Kimsing1, Robin Doley2 and Daniel Mize1*

1Department of Zoology, Ecology & Wildlife Biology Unit, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

2 Department of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur-784028 Assam, India

Journal of Bioresources 5(2): 44-50 (2018)     ISSN 2394-4315


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Abstract: Ticks are blood feeding ecto-parasites of terrestrial vertebrates, comprising of three families, the Ixodidae (hard ticks), Argasidae (soft tick), and Nuttalidae (monotypic). The present study was carried out to determine the diversity and morphological characteristics of ticks on targeted host animals, the Mithun (Bos frontalis ) and Cow (Bos taurus indicus ) from Kaying circle of Arunachal Pradesh on February 2017. Nymph, adult and fully-engorged ticks were collected carefully using tweezer with mouth parts intact as it is crucial for morphological identification. The collected specimen was then fixed in a vial containing 70% ethanol and observed under compound microscope for morphological characterization. For identification of ticks, literatures such as Walker et al., 2003 and Bristol university ticks ID, an online photographic guide to ticks were used. The survey resulted in total of 711 numbers of individuals (487 from Mithun and 224 from Cow). Morphological study reveals that the collected ticks were of three genus of ticks i.e. Rhipicephalus ,Haemaphysalis and Ixodes . Out of 711 individuals, 701 wereRhipicephalus sp. 5 were Ixodes sp. and 5 were of, Haemaphysalis sp.. Present study documents Mithuns and Cows of Kaying village are infested by diverse tick species and Rhipicephalus species is dominant in both the host animals.

Key words: Bos frontalis, Bos taurus indicus , ectoparasite, Kaying, tick.

Original Research Article

Study on Pharmacognostical Potential of Garcinia L. Species from Arunachal Pradesh, India

Gaottham Gogoi* and Arup Kumar Das

Department of Botany, Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh - 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 5(2): 51-57 (2018)    ISSN 2394-4315


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Abstract: Pharmacognosy deals with the study of medicinal uses of various naturally occurring drugs. Pharmacognostic standardization of crude drug is important to establish authentic identity of a crude drug to ensure quality, safety and reproducibility. The present investigation aims to study the pharmacognostical potential of fourGarcinia L. species (G. pedunculata , G. lanceifolia ,G. morella andG. xanthochymus ) from Arunachal Pradesh. In the present context, pharmacognosy parameters such as macroscopic and microscopic characters, moisture content, extractive values, fluorescence parameters and ash values were determined. Exudates from bark are a common characteristic of Garcinia L. species observed in all the collected species. All the species possess almost same microscopical charateristic feature with dominant paracytic stomatal types. Average stomatal number of 31±1.21 per sq. cm. was found to highest in G. lanceifolia . Moisture content was found highest in the leaf and fruit ofG. pedunculata with 9.12±0.29% and 17.71±0.34 %. Methanol extracts provides high extractive values and chloroform extracts shows less potential. Methanolic leaf and fruit extractive values of G. pedunculata was found to be highest among all the species with 6.94±0.79g and 5.64±0.47g. Till date, no record has been found on pharmacognostical work of Garcinia L. species from Arunachal Pradesh which possesses high value traditional medicine in the state. The present work will provide a better understanding to detect the authenticity of these Garcinia L. species. Moreover studies of the species would provide better knowledge and information to the modern medicine as well as to the pharmaceutical companies.

Key words: Arunachal Pradesh, Garcinia species, India, Pharmacognosy

Original Research Article

Taxonomic Validation of the Assamese King Fish Semiplotus semiplotus (McClelland, 1839) (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) with Notes on its Biology and Habitat

Rashmi Dutta, *Achom Darshan and Debanshu Narayan Das

Department of Zoology, Fishery and Aquatic Biology Laboratory (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity) Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, India.

Journal of Bioresources 5(2): 65-71 (2018)    ISSN 2394-4315


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Abstract: The genus Semiplotus Bleeker 1860 was established to accommodate Cyprinus semiplotus McClelland 1839. Members of the genus are known from the Brahmaputra, Koladyne and Chindwin drainages, inhabiting the mountainous fast flowing streams with sediments consisting of pebble, cobble and boulder in. The generic placement of Semiplotus semiplotus has been confused since Howes synonymized the genus Semiplotus to Cyprinion Heckel in 1982, solely based on their similarities in the osteological structures of jaw and mouth shape. This study investigates the morphometric and meristics features of theS. semiplotus, and discussed the key characteristic differences between the two genera and consideredSemiplotus as a valid cyprinid genus. This paper validated Cyprinus semiplotus under the genus Semiplotus and diagnosed it from congeners by its more branched dorsal-fin rays (23-25 vs. 20-23), single transverse row of 10-12 (vs. 5-6) open pores across the snout, and a fewer rows of scale (6 vs.7) above lateral line. The species is distributed only in the Brahmaputra drainage comprising: northeastern India, Bhutan and Nepal. The study also investigates the reproductive biology of the species and reveals that it breeds once in a year, after passing through a sequential gonadal maturity stages viz. immature phase, maturation phase and fully mature gonads. The fecundity of females ranged between 7510-23309 eggs with an average fecundity of 12040.57±3574.62 eggs. The findings on the physio-chemical characteristics of thein situ habitat of the species, its conservation status and prevailing threats are also presented and discussed in the paper.

Key words: Assamese king fish, in situ habitat, Semiplotus semiplotus , taxonomy

Original Research Article

Effects of a Medicinal Alkaline Food Additive of Ethnic Community of North East India on Microscopic Structural Organization of Small Intestine and Hepatic Tissue of Albino Mice.

Dhan Hang Limbu and Moushumi Das*

Department of Zoology, University of Science and Technology, Meghalaya, India

Journal of Bioresources 5(2): 72-76 (2018)    ISSN 2394-4315


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Abstract: The ethnic communities of north east India are rich with their traditional delicacies. They make an alkaline preparation from parts of banana plants especiallyMusa bulbisiana species. Aquous extract of either dry peels of ripen banana or stem of the plant is used as common alkaline food additive among many of the ethnic communities. The preparation is commonly known as “Kalakhar ” among the Assamese people. In the present study, it has been hypothesized that excess intake of this food additive may cause tissue injury. Thus, in vivo administration of this alkaline preparation was carried out in albino mice at a dose of 15ml/kg body weight per day. Administration through oral route was done for short duration (20 days) and long duration (40 days) in two separate groups of animals. The experimental mice were sacrified at the end of the period and collected liver and intestine for histological studies. The results showed cellular degeneration in different rate in liver tissue. Infiltration of neutrofils in hepatic tissue indicates cellular necrosis. Effects on the intestinal epithelial cells are recorded following long duration (40 days) treatment. It causes collapse of surface cell layer at certain areas of intestine. It is to be noted that the effects of the extract could be dose and duration dependent. A health friendly effects of this food additive prevailed in the society for centuries can not be ignored. The extract intake in specific dose could be helpful in correction of eating abnormaliries and thus, protect the system against metabolic disorder.

Key words: Ethnic foods, kalakhar, histoarchitecture, toxicity

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