Current Issue
July-Dec, 2022

Rajiv Gandhi University

Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity

Half yearly Journal published in July and December 2022

Editorial Board

Prof. Hui Tag




Article Content



Review Article

Distribution, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical profile and pharmacological activities of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.: a review

Kangkan Kalita, Bhaswati Kashyap, Rosy Ahmed, Himsikhar Sarma, Koushik Nandan Dutta, Kangkan Deka, Sameeran Gam, Nilutpal Sharma Bora*

Department of Pharmacognosy, NETES Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, NEMCARE Group of Institutions, Shantipur, Mirza, Kamrup, Assam, India – 781125

Corresponding author email: (Nilutpal Sharma Bora)

Article No.: NPBSJBR12; Received: 20.09.2022; Reviewed: 5.10.2022; Revised: 15.10.2022; Accepted: 12.11.2022; Published: 31.12.2022


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Abstract: Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae), also known as the "Life Plant", has been used in traditional medicine across various cultures for the treatment of numerous ailments such as wounds, respiratory infections, and kidney stones. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the scientific investigation of this plant to validate its traditional uses and to discover potential new therapeutic applications. This review summarizes the current status of traditional and ethnomedical utility, phytochemical profile, and established pharmacological activities of K. pinnata. It discusses the traditional uses of K. pinnata in various cultures, including India, Africa, and South America, and highlights different parts of the plant used for medicinal purposes. The Kalanchoe species consists of about 25 perennial succulent species, which have been propagated by leaf shedding and reported to contain bioactive compounds like bufadienolides, flavonoids, and isoprenoids. This genus is a native of Madagascar, and has homotypic synonyms, like Bryophyllum pinnatum, Crassula pinnata, Coyledon pinnata etc. and heterotypic synonyms like Kalanchoe calcicola, Cotyledon rhizophylla, Bryophyllum calycinum etc. The pharmacological activities of K. pinnata, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic effects, are also discussed in detail. This article also describes the mechanisms of action underlying the pharmacological activities of the plant, including its effects on various cellular signaling pathways. In addition, the article highlights the potential toxicological effects of K. pinnata and the need for further investigation to establish its safety profile. highlights the B. pinnatum as a potential source of new therapeutic agents and the need for further research to validate its traditional uses and establish its safety and efficacy for medicinal purposes.

Keywords: Kalanchoe pinnata; Life Plant; Traditional Medicine; Phytochemistry; Pharmacology, Therapeutic Potential

Review Article

Nitric oxide as a modulator of stress and reproductive axis: a review

Hage Konya1, Madhu Yashpal2, Pankaj Kumar1*, Bechan Lal3

1Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, Itanagar-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

2Department of Zoology, Gargi College (University of Delhi), Siri Fort Road, New Delhi – 110049, India.

3Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221 005 (U.P.), India.

Corresponding email ID:

Article No.: HKJBR36; Article Received: 14.10.2022; Reviewed: 18.11.2022; Accepted: 15.12.2022; Published: 31.12.2022


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Abstract: Anxiety and depression are the major disorders among the present world population with 3.6% of the global population suffering from anxiety and 4.4% from depression. Anxiety and depression are comorbid conditions and are reported to be gender biased, being more prevalent in females than males. Various factors that were reported to be responsible for the development of such conditions in an individual are environmental, genetic as well as epigenetic. Thus, the body has an elaborate interconnected system to maintain homeostasis and is regulated by various molecules. Among such systems are the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, responsible for the regulation of stress in the body and the hypothalamo-pituitary- gonadal axis, responsible for reproductive functions. These axes again have an intricate system of neural circuitry comprising neuromodulators and neurotransmitters modulating its functioning. One such molecule is the ubiquitously present nitric oxide. This nitric oxide is implicated to be involved in various physiological processes through cyclic guanosine 3′5′-monophosphate (cGMP), including the functions of the brain. Nitric oxide is produced as a byproduct in the enzymatic conversion of L-Arginine to L-Citrulline in the presence of NADPH, cofactors and the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), NOS has three isoforms in the body neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS), all playing different roles in the body physiology. Of the three isoforms, nNOS expression has been found to be distributed in various brain regions such as the cerebellar cortex, dorsal raphe, cerebral cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, preoptic area and also paraventricular, magnocellular, the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus. These regions, especially the amygdala, hippocampus, and dorsal medial thalamus of the subcortical limbic regions have been reported to be associated with mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. nNOS has been implicated in a varied range of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, anxiety, stroke and also learning and memory and neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. NO produced in the brain is linked to be involved in regulating the HPA axis. On the other hand, NO is shown to be localized and expressed in the hypothalamus, hypophysis and gonads and can act on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal (HPG) axis to regulate the synthesis and release of GnRH and thus reproduction, as GnRH and NO-producing neurons occupy similar positions in the hypothalamus. NO has also been reported to regulate spermatogenesis, sperm motility, sperm capacitation, fertilization, oogenesis (follicle development/folliculogenesis), gonadal hormones and steroidogenesis. Nitric oxide is also involved in the embryonic development of the brain and gonads, affecting the overall development of the HPA and HPG axis. Various studies have shown that nitric oxide is intricately involved in the modulation of both the HPA axis and HPG axis and thus in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders and mood disorders and consequently affecting reproductive behaviour and fertility. This review is an attempt to highlight the crosstalk between the HPA and HPG axis and the role nitric oxide plays in regulating both the axis and mood disorders.

Keywords: Hypothalamus; Stress; Anxiety; Depression; Pituitary; Nitric Oxide; Gonads

Review Article

Impacts of air pollutants on human health, global climate regime, ecosystem services, food and livelihood security

Sarowar Alom1* and Manzur Hassan2†

1Department of Zoology, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya-793022.

2Department of Zoology, Cotton University, Guwahati, Assam-781001.

*†Corresponding author email:;

Article No.: SAJBR25; Received: 9.10.2022; Reviewed: 11.11.22; Revised: 10.12.22; Accepted: 15.12.22; Published: 31.12.22

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Abstract: Air pollution is a major environmental issue that affects human health, global climate regime, ecosystem services, food and human livelihood security worldwide. The sources of air pollutants include natural phenomena induced dust storms and poisonous gases emission through volcanic eruption, earth quacks and flash floods as well as anthropogenic activities induced dust and greenhouse gases including methane, Carbon monoxide (CO), Carbon dioxide (Co2) and other toxic gases emission through agricultural activities, transportation, mining, weapon testing, industrial processes and energy production activities. Particulate Matters (PM), nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, ozone, black carbon and carbon monoxide are the main pollutants of concern, as they have been found to be linked with high incidence of respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, mental retardation and neurological disorders in both human and animals. The impacts of indoor air pollutants like toxic dust particles, CO, CO2, Methane and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) on human health vary depending on the level and duration of exposure but it can have devastating and long-lasting impacts on human health by causing acute respiratory diseases (ARD), chronic respiratory diseases ( CRD), chronic obstructive respiratory diseases (COPD), neurological disorders, Alzheimer, mental retardation and cardiovascular diseases. The short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and black carbon have been reported to have devasting impacts on global climate regime, ecosystem services and threaten food and human livelihood security. To mitigate adverse impacts of air pollutants on global environment and food security, it is important to reduce emissions of major air pollutants including SLCPs through adoption of clean energy sources, implementing emission standards, increase green cover and promoting sustainable occupational and lifestyle practices. Continued research and public education efforts are essential to protect public health and the environment from the detrimental impacts of air pollutants at regional and global scale.

Keywords: Air Pollutants; Human Health; Respiratory Diseases; SLCPs; Global Climate; Ecosystem Services; Food Security; Livelihood

Research Article

Physiological and biochemical modulations in the thermophilic cyanobacterium Westiellopsis sp. TPR-29 under high sulfur supplementations

Anirbana Parida#, Samujjal Bhattacharjee#, Prashansa Singh, Arun Kumar Mishra*

Laboratory of Microbial Genetics, Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

*Corresponding Author email:; (Prof. Arun Kumar Mishra)

#Equally contributed first authors

Article No. AKMJBR05; Received: 18.08.2022; Reviewed: 20.11.2022; Accepted and Published: 31.12.2022


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Abstract: Cyanobacteria demonstrate versatile utilization of inorganic sulfur sources, contributing to the global sulfur cycle. Their resilience is evident in adapting to diverse sulfur bioavailability in different ecosystems. However, the impact of high sulfur concentrations on cyanobacterial physiology is a concern. This study focused on Westiellopsis sp. TPR-29, a heterocytous branched cyanobacterium inhabiting a sulfur-rich hot spring. The cyanobacterium was exposed to different sulfate concentrations (50 mM, 500 mM, and 650 mM), along with a control group (0.3 mM). After a 7-day incubation period, physiological and biochemical assessments were conducted. The results showed decreased cyanobacterial growth in the presence of 500 mM and 650 mM sulfur concentrations, while 50 mM sulfate stimulated growth. Similar trends were observed for photosynthetic efficiency, protein, and carbohydrate content. Moreover, elevated levels of H2O2 and MDA at 500 mM and 650 mM indicated oxidative stress in cyanobacterial cells. These findings suggest that high sulfur concentrations, particularly 500 mM and 650 mM, are toxic to cyanobacteria, impairing their physiological processes and leading to reduced growth. Conversely, 50 mM sulfur had a positive effect on cyanobacterial physiology, enhancing growth. This study highlights the detrimental effects of high sulfur concentrations on cyanobacteria and provides insights into the elaborate mechanisms of stress tolerance in these prokaryotic photoautotrophs

Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Sulfur; Thermophile; Hotspring; Oxidative stress.

Research Article

Asymbiotic in vitro seed culture of Paphiopedilum fairrieanum, P. venustum and Dendrobium densiflorum on low-cost substrata

Bengia Mamu, Oyi Dai Nimasow, Rajiv Kumar Singh*

Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

*Corresponding author email:

Article No.: RKSJBR51; Received 26.10.2022; Reviewed: 24.11.2022; Accepted: 15.12.2022; Published: 31.12.2022


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Abstract: Asymbiotic germination of immature seeds of orchids represents a valuable method for large-scale seedling production, addressing both commercial demand and the conservation of rare and endangered species. In this study, we explored the efficacy of three low-cost substrates: Polyurethane foam (PUF), Coconut husk chips (CHC), and Tree Leaf litter (TLL), as substitutes for the expensive agar-gelled medium in the in vitro seedling culture of three commercially important orchid species, namely, Paphiopedilum fairrieanum (Lindl.) Stein., P. venustum (Wall. ex Sims) Pfitzer, both endangered Slipper orchids, and Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl. ex Wall. During a 120-day culture period, we recorded germination time, germination frequency, and the proportion of different growth stages on these substrates, comparing them to the agar-gelled medium. All substrates were fortified with half Murashige and Skoog medium, 0.5 mg/L α-Napthaleneacetic acid, 10% Coconut water, and 2% Sucrose. Subsequently, in vitro hardening of rooted seedlings was conducted using composites prepared from cost-effective materials, including charcoal, brick pieces, and coconut husk chips. Further, secondary hardening was e on the same composite that additionally contained garden soil, sand, and a top cover of moss. Among the tested substrates, agar-gelled medium exhibited the highest seed germination and seedling formation for Paphiopedilum, while it performed equally well as PUF for D. densiflorum. Conversely, the germination time for all species was one week shorter when using PUF. In comparison, CHC resulted in a lower germination frequency and prolonged germination time. Although protocorms (stage 3) of all species developed maximally on CHC, only D. densiflorum reached the rooted seedling stage. The performance of TLL was significantly inferior for all species, with none of them progressing to protocorm (stage 3). After primary hardening, 80% of seedlings of P. fairrieanum and D. densiflorum, and 70% of seedlings of P. venustum survived. Following 90 days of secondary hardening inside a 70% shade net house, about two-thirds, three-fourths, and half of the total transplants of P. fairrieanum, P. venustum, and D. densiflorum, respectively, thrived in the pots. Our findings suggest that PUF presents a cost-effective alternative for cultivating P. fairrieanum, P. venustum, and D. densiflorum. Additionally, CHC holds promise for low-cost production of their protocorms, which, upon multiplication on suitable media, could be developed into a large number of seedlings.

Keywords: Orchids; Endangered; Commercial; In vitro Multiplication; Micropropagation; Non-gelling Substrata; Protocorm; Seedling Development

Research article

Corydalis adhikarii (Fumariaceae), a new alpine species from Dibang Valley district, East Arunachal Pradesh, India

Magnus Lidén

Evolutionary Biology Centre, Dept. of Organismal Biology, Uppsala university, Norbyvägen 18D, Uppsala 75236, Sweden.


Article No: MLJBR08; Received: 13.08.2022; Reviewed: 16.10.2022; Revised and Accepted: 27.11.2022; Published: 31.12.2022


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Abstract: Corydalis adhikarii is described as new to science. It is an alpine species, similar to the presumably related vicariant species C. pseudoadoxa from NW Yunnan, SE Tibet and N Burma, but clearly differs from this in taller stature, glaucous adaxial leaf surface, lax racemes, more divided bracts, longer stiffer pedicels, and much larger flowers with up-turned spur and broadly auriculate outer petals. Photos and line drawings of the new species are provided, and the differences to C. pseudoadoxa are outlined. Notes on the ecology and phenology of the new species are given.

Keywords: Corydalis; New Species; Fumariaceae; Alpine Flora; Dibang Valley; Arunachal Pradesh

Research Article

Chonemorpha fragrans (Apocyanaceae): a new distributional record for Tripura, India

Sani Das*, Dipti Das, Dixit Bora, Badal Kumar Datta

Plant Systematics and Biodiversity Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Agartala ‒ 799 022, Tripura, India

*Corresponding author email:

Article No.: SDJBR24; Received: 20.07.2022; Reviewed: 30.08.2022; Revised: 16.11.2022; Accepted and Published: 31.12.222


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Abstract: Chonemorpha fragrans (family: Apocyanaceae) is recorded here as a new record for Tripura state in India. Taxonomic descriptions, relevant notes, and photographs are provided for easy identification.

Keywords: Chonemorpha fragrans; New Record; Climber; Apocyanaceae; Tripura; North East India

Short Communication

Cardiocrinum giganteum (Wall.) Makino: a lesser-known traditional medicinal plant from Shi Yomi district of Arunachal Pradesh, India

Nyater Ado and Victor Singh Ayam*

Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, Papum Pare, Arunachal Pradesh, India

*Corresponding author email:

Article No.: AVSJBR30; Received: 14.08.2022; Reviewed: 29.09.2022; Revised: 25.10.2023; Accepted: 15.11.2022; Published: 31.12.2022


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Abstract: Cardiocrinum giganteum (Wall.) Makino is a bulbous temperate giant lily species belonging to Liliaceae family and found growing at an altitude of 1500–3000 meters from MSL. It is reported as native to Eastern Himalayas including Sikkim, Bhutan and Arunachal Himalayan Region of India and extended to up to South East China and Tibet. It is also found in the Central Himalayas mainly in Uttarakhand, where it is considered as an ornamental plant. However, the plant has ethnobotanical significance in Arunachal Himalayan Region and have significant ethnopharmacological relevance. The present study aimed to explore the ethnobotanical uses of C. giganteum by the indigenous tribes of the Shi Yomi district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Ethnobotanical field interview was conducted over a period of three years (2019-2022) using participant observation and semi-structured interview methods in Shi-Yomi district of Arunachal Pradesh, covering 18 villages and 94 key informants. This was followed by a systematic documentation of the traditional utilization knowledge of C. giganteum, collection of voucher specimens and quantitative evaluation of ethnobotanical information. The Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) was used to determine the local significance of C. giganteum. This study revealed RFC value of C. giganteum to be 0.44, and the highest informant citations were recorded under food category. The matured seeds and stems were reported to be used in decoration and flute making. The bulb of C. giganteum was found to be used as a vegetable while the root paste was used for fixing the fractured bones. The bulb of C. giganteum was found to be consumed by the pregnant women which is believed to enhance the fetus development and have been reported as ethnobotanical novelty in present study. Although there are a few scientific reports available to date on the phytochemical and pharmacological profile of the bulb and seeds, however, there is no validation of its uses against fractured bone. Practical applications of other traditional uses of C. giganteum other than as food were found to be declining among the local communities of the Shi-Yomi district. At this juncture, our findings would provide a framework for reviving the diminishing traditional utilization knowledge.

Keywords: Cardiocrinum; Giant Himalayan Lily; Traditional Uses; Bone Fracture; Shi Yomi District; Arunachal Pradesh

Research Article

Antibacterial potential of fungal endophytes isolated from medicinal weed Physalis angulata L.

Udipta Das1*, Sangeeta Tanti1, Kripamoy Chakraborty2, Panna Das2, Ajay Krishna Saha1

1Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar–799 022, Tripura, India

2Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar–799 022, Tripura, India

*Corresponding Author email:,

Article No: UDJBR29; Received: 20.08.2022; Reviewed: 15.09.2022; Revised: 30.10.2022; Accepted: 30.10.2022; Published: 31.12.2022


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Abstract: Endophytes are microorganisms, typically fungi and bacteria that live between the living cells of plants. The current research work has been carried out on isolation and morphological characterization of fungal endophytes from medicinal plant Physalis angulata L. (Syn. Physalis minima L.) of Solanaceae along with their respective antibacterial efficacy. A total of 90 endophytic fungal isolates consigned to 10 representative morphotypes belonging to five different genera viz., Curvularia, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Phoma, Fusarium and five sterile mycelial forms were isolated. Leaf samples (95%) compared to stem (37.5) and roots (92.5%) have higher colonization percentage. The agar disc diffusion method was employed to measure antibacterial activity of these fungal mycelial extracts against both gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. The inhibition zone ranges from 5.11±0.22 mm to 17.05±2.37 mm. From the present study, it is evident that the different plant parts of P. angulata are colonized by different endophytic fungi and all the fungal isolates have antibacterial efficacy. Future research may be directed towards isolation of novel compounds associated with these fungal endophytes by using modern scientific tools to unknot the actual mechanistic approach behind their effectiveness against the bacteria.

Keywords: Physalis angulata; Medicinal Plant; Antibacterial Activity; Fungal Extracts; Endophytes

Research Article

A comparative study on vegetation cover, soil properties and status of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Jhum fallow and Natural Forest in Arunachal Pradesh

Hage Yakang and Oyi Dai Nimasow*

Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

*Corresponding Author email:;

Article No.: OHYJBR57; Received: 18.07.2022; Reviewed: 10.09.2022; Revised: 30.10.2022; Accepted: 15.11.2022; Published: 31.12.2022


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Abstract: Deforestation in the form of shifting agriculture is one of the biggest threats to the forests in Northeast India. Such disturbances adversely affect the vegetation, soil health and the below-ground microorganisms especially Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF). The present study investigated the impact of conversion of a tropical forest area into a Jhum field on vegetation cover, soil physico-chemical properties and the below ground AMF status in Papum Pare district of Arunachal Pradesh. Sampling was done by belt transect method covering 4 plots of 10,000 m2 size. Vegetation cover, Tree Diameter at Breast Height (DBH), soil physico-chemical properties, root colonization (RC), AMF inoculum potential (IP), spore population (SP) and AMF diversity in composite soil samples were quantified. The vegetation cover in the Natural Forest was more than the Jhum fallows with greater plant diversity, tree density, canopy cover, and DBH. Soil pH, Organic Carbon, available Nitrogen and available Phosphorus content in the soil differed significantly between the sites. RC (66.67%), IP (1.58 g-1 soil) and SP (224 AMF spores 100 g-1) were higher in the Natural Forest. The study showed that removal of above-ground vegetation exerts negative impacts on the soil properties and AMF status.

Keywords: Deforestation, tropical forest, shifting agriculture, slash and burn cultivation vegetation cover, mycorrhizal fungi, soil properties

Short Communication

Traditional uses of Solanum species by the tribal communities of Lower Subansiri district, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Hage Yanka1, Pallabi K. Hui2* and Hui Tag1*

1Plant Systematics and Ethnobotanical Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

2Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology Arunachal Pradesh, Jote-791123, Papum Pare, Arunachal Pradesh, India

*Corresponding author e-mail:;

Article No.: HYJBR68; Received: 23.07.2022; Reviewed: 28.09.2022; Revised: 23.11.2022; Accepted: 15.12.2022; Published: 31.12.2022


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Abstract: Arunachal Pradesh, being one of the mega biodiversity hotspots, is blessed with rich flora and fauna among which the species of Solanum L. is abundantly found in the state and has been extensively used by different tribes of the state. The current study reports traditional uses of the genus Solanum L. by the indigenous communities of the Lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh. The study has revealed 10 species of Solanum which are traditionally used for different purposes. Greater majority of the species have been reported to be used as food and medicine while 9 species have been reported to be used as food, 5 species as a medicine and 4 species have been reported to be used as both food and medicine. Fruits were reported to be frequently harvested parts used followed by leaves and tubers. This study revealed economic value of the Solanum species potential to sustain rural food and medicinal security.

Keywords: Solanum; Species Diversity; Indigenous Tribes; Traditional Uses; Food and Medicine; Economic Importance

Short Communication

Effect of substrate pre-treatment methods on the fruit body production of Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer

Litnya Tangjang, Titel Megu, Tenya Rina*

Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

*Corresponding author’s email:

Article No.: TRJBR26/27; Received: 28.08.2022; Reviewed: 30.10.2022; Revised: 05.11.2022; Accepted: 15.11.2022; Published: 31.12.2022


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Abstract: Oyster mushroom cultivation is a profitable agri-business utilizing various lignocellulosic agro-forest waste materials. Among all the species, Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer is reportedly the best species showing maximum productivity in a very short cultivation period of time on paddy straw in subtropical agro climate. However, substrate treatment is a pre-requisite for elimination of various competitor moulds and bacteria to allow efficient colonization of fungal mycelia for obtaining high yield of oyster mushrooms. In the present study, different methods of substrate treatment, viz: Bavistin+Formalin, cold lime treatment, autoclaving, and hot water treatment were evaluated for their efficacy on the growth and productivity of P. sajor-caju on paddy straw. Substrate treatment by autoclaving proved to be the best method in terms of spawn run, pinhead initiation, maturation of fruiting bodies, cropping duration, mushroom yield (286.66g) and biological efficiency (94.61%). However, it produced lighter fruiting bodies though more in number. On the other hand, cold lime treatment gave a heavier but lesser number of fruit bodies with total yield (235.33g) and BE (77.67%). Treatment with Bavistin+Formalin gave a yield of 238.00g with 78.67% BE. Hot water treatment provided the lowest yield (232.33g) with 76.68% BE.

Keywords: Pleurotus sajor-caju, Substrate Treatment method, Mushroom Yield, Biological efficiency

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