Volume 5: Issue 1
January-June 2018

Rajiv Gandhi University

Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity

Half yearly Journal published in June and December

Review Article

Aquaporins: Structure and Physiology in Fish

Priyambada Chutia and Manas Das*

Department of Zoology, Animal Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India.

Journal of Bioresources 5(1): 1-17(2018)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: manasdasne@gmail.com

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Abstract: Aquaporins are a superfamily of transmembrane channel proteins that transport water and solutes across membranes and is found throughout the living biota. The protein exists as a homotetramer in the cell membrane. Each monomer consists of six membrane spanning alpha-helices that have a central water-transporting pore. Both C and N termini of the AQP protein face the cytosol. Most of the aquaporins consist of a conserved NPA motif that is the characteristic feature of this family. Aquaporins play a vital role in the survival of fishes as their natural environment comprises of water. Both marine and fresh water fishes express aquaporins which are regulated in a way to allow them to survive in their respective environment with different levels of salinity. Cellular localization, tissue distribution pattern and experimental studies imply that the physiological roles of piscine aquaporins extend to osmoregulation, reproduction, early development and ontogeny of fish. Most studies address on the type of AQP isoforms present in the fish, their localization in the body, their expression pattern under experimental conditions, in elucidating the structural paradigms and assigning specific functional properties; but every aspects of piscine aquaporins have not been solved yet. In this review our aim is to discuss the discovery, structure, function, localization, and diversification of the aquaporin superfamily with special reference to teleost aquaporins. This review emphasizes on discussing the types of aquaporin isoforms present in the osmoregulatory organs like gills, gastrointestinal tract and kidney of different fishes and the various techniques employed by researchers in studying them.

Key words: Aquaporin, Channel protein, Fish, Homeostasis, Osmoregulation, Paralogs.

Original Research Article

Role of Fragmented Forests in Conservation of Biota: A Study in Balipara Reserve Forest, Sonitpur District, Assam (India)

Diana Ethel Amonge and Awadhesh Kumar*

Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (Deemed University), Nirjuli, Arunachal Pradesh- 791109, India

Journal of Bioresources 5(1): 18-27 (2018)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: tpileatus@gmail.com

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Abstract: With the occurrence of rapid industrialization and urbanization at an inevitable rate much alternation is witnessed in forest ecosystems. The formation of fragmented forest patches surrounded by agricultural landscapes and human settlements is a crucial change that have been noticed. Because of this, fragmented landscapes are now becoming one of the most ubiquitous features of all forest ecosystems for the conservation of the species at a local landscape level. In fact, the importance of these fragmented forest stands of varying sizes have been emphasized by various authors worldwide. For accounting the same, a 5.6 ha of fragmented forest stand located within the Balipara Reserve Forest (BRF) of Sonitpur district, Assam was selected to conduct a survey on small mammalian’s diversity and their habitat towards signifying the conservation value of such stands for wildlife survivorship. Both invasive (direct) and non-invasive (indirect) methods were used to record the mammalian richness and plant diversity. Our study revealed a total of 9 mammalian species belonging to 8 families and 129 plant species belonging to 49 families. This study suggests that fragmented forest stands beside harbouring high floral diversity, also have the potential to conserve and manage several threatened wildlife species that are thriving within it particularly small mammals in the present scenario. Therefore, it has become an urgent necessity to examine the value of small fragmented or isolated forest stands of the region so that they are not implicitly considered worthless and removed or converted to other land use practices.

Key words: Conservation, Fragmented forest stand, Plant diversity, Small mammals

Original Research Article

Soil Carbon Sequestration Along Forest Canopy Gradient:Mitigating Climate Change

*Gyati Yam and Om Prakash Tripathi

Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, Nirjuli-791109, Arunacha Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 5(1): 28-33 (2018)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: gyatiyam.08@gmail.com

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Abstract: Soil carbon sequestration is the process of storing atmospheric carbon in the long lived soil pool in a form that is not immediately re-emitted. Soil carbon is considered to be the largest pool of terrestrial carbon. Carbon sequestration is mainly regulated by the physiographic, edaphic, biotic and climatic factors. Land use change, however, influence the carbon stocks and fluxes. Forest soil plays a vital role in the climate change mitigation by restricting the direct release of carbon into the atmosphere. The quantity and quality of forest litter greatly influence the soil carbon stock. Therefore, it is very important to know the potential of soil carbon sequestration in the different land use sectors including forest ecosystem for global C balancing. The study was carried out in Talle Wildlife Sanctuary, Ziro valley, Lower Subansiri, Arunachal Pradesh to enumerate the carbon sequestration potential of forest soil along the forest canopy gradient. Soil was found to be acidic in nature while acidity increases with increase in forest canopy cover. Soil organic carbon ranges between 3.71% (open canopy) and 5.09% (dense canopy). The contribution of microbial biomass carbon was very low but found higher in dense canopy than the open forest canopies. Total soil carbon also followed similar trend to that of microbial biomass carbon. The study recorded SOC stock 70.79 MgCha-1 for the first year (2014) and 91.72MgCha-1during second year (2015). Thus, carbon sequestered in the forest soil was 20.93 MgCha-1Yr-1. Findings of the present study could be helpful for the policy makers in precise carbon budget, proper management and adaptation strategies for mitigating climate change.

Key words: Carbon sequestration, Climate change, Forest canopy, Microbial biomass carbon.

Original Research Article

Human-Wildlife Interspecific Interaction in Barak Valley, Assam, India

Himangshu Dutta1, Hilloljyoti Singha*2 and Biman Kumar Dutta1

1Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India. PIN 788011

2Centre for Biodiversity and Natural Resource Conservation, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India. PIN 788011

Journal of Bioresources 5(1): 34-40(2018)     ISSN 2394-4315

Email: hilloljyoti.singha@gmail.com.

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Abstract: The negative interface between the man and wildlife has been widening due to expanding human population and loss of natural habitats. Two important components of this aspect are human-wildlife conflicts (when wildlife causes direct or indirect loss to mankind) and rescue operations (when wildlife trespasses into human habitations and are rescued by competent authority). Forest villages (located inside protected forests) and fringe villages (located adjacent to protected areas) are highly vulnerable to this problem. To understand the intricacies of the problem, a close-ended questionnaire survey was conducted to document animals causing depredation in some randomly selected such villages of Barak Valley. Information on human-wildlife conflicts and wildlife rescue operations carried out in the valley were retrieved from the records of the forest department. Jackals, civets, monkeys and wild boars were mainly involved in conflicts in the forest- and fringe villages, apart from some other minor conflict animals. Human conflicts with elephants were mostly documented in official records of the forest department, and pythons were found to be the most frequently rescued wildlife from human habitations. An overall picture of human-wildlife interface using both primary and secondary data depicted in the Barak valley concludes that, there is a need for intensive study on the issues.

Key words: Barak valley, Forest villages, Fringe villages, Man-animal conflict, Rescue operations.

Original Research Article

Anatomical Characteristics and Fibre Dimensions of Some Grass Species of Arunachal Pradesh and their Potential for Pulp and Paper

M. Sharma*, C. L. Sharma, M. Bage, B. R. Gogoi and G. Pangging

Wood Science and Forest Products Laboratory, Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (NERIST), Nirjuli -791109, Arunachal Pradesh

Journal of Bioresources 5(1): 41-48(2018)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: mbs_madhu@yahoo.co.in

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Abstract: Non- woody plants are potential sources of raw material for pulp and paper and supplement the depleted wood fibre resources. The present study was conducted on grass species namely Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.,Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.,Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth) Keng ex Hitch., Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud., Saccharum arundinaceum Retz.,S. spontaneum L.,Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv.,Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. Var. fertilis,Themeda caudate (Nees) A. Camus,Thysolaena maxima (Roxb.) O. Ktze collected from district Papumpare to evaluate their suitability as a raw material for pulp and paper making. The basal portion of the mature culms of selected grass species were taken to study the anatomical characteristics, fibre and vessel dimensions. The derived indices like Runkel ratio, flexibility coefficient, slenderness ratio, Luce’s shape factor and solid factor were also evaluated and were compared with that ofBambusa tulda , a promising bamboo species in NE India for pulp and paper making. The selected grass species had well developed fibrous sheath around the vascular bundles. The additional fibrous ring was present in the periphery ofEleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, Phragmites karka andSporobolus indicus . The fibre percentage was more than vessel and parenchyma in all selected grass species. The number of vascular bundles per mm2 was maximum inImperata cylindrica and minimum inPhragmites karka . Based on the results, all the selected grasses species have fibres with desirable derived indices and can be used as an alternative source of raw material for pulp and paper making.

Key words: Derived indices, Fibre dimensions, Grass species, Pulp and paper making, Tissue proportion, Vascular bundles

Original Research Article

Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Pouzolzia zeylanica (L.) Bennett & R. Brown Leaves in Albino Rat

Loxmi Jamoh1, Pallabi K. Hui2, Tridip J. Das1 and Hui Tag1*

1Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.a

2Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology (NIT), Yupia-791112, Papum Pare, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

Journal of Bioresources 5(1): 49-55(2018)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: huitag2008rgu@gmail.com

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Abstract: Pouzolzia zeylanica , herb is traditionally used for treatment of dysentery, fevers, toothaches, urinary problems and abdominal pain by the tribal communites of Arunachal Pradesh. Juice and decoction of leaves and roots are used for various purpuses. The present investigation was done to evaluate the analgesic activity of methanolic extract ofPouzolzia zeylanica leaves (MEPZL) in albino rat model. Methanolic crude extract was administered through oral route to the rats divided in different groups for analgesic test. The analgesic effect of MEPZL was recorded using Eddy’s Hot Plate Test and Tail Immersion Test done on albino rats of Wistar Strain. The extract was given to the animals in three different doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg respectively. The test results have shown that pain of the rats were significantly reduced in the treated rats than that of the controls. Treatement of diclofenac sodium was used as the standard drug of test against the plant extract for analgesic activity. The qualitative phytochemical screening on the MEPZL revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin and saponin in the extract. The compound(s) having the analgesic property in the extract is yet to be identified. It is speculated that certain compound(s) present in the leaves of the plant tested could be responsible for present analgesic activities of extract. Mechanism of action of these compounds need to be studied. Detail pharmacological investigation may lead to the development of a plant derived useful crude drugs for the treatment and management of acute and chronic pain condition.

Key words: Analgesic tests, Analgesiometer, Phytochemicals,Pouzolzia zeylanica

Original Research Article

Effects of Altered pH on Antioxidant Defence System ofMonopterus cuchia (Hamilton, 1822) in Ex-situ Modulated Environment pH Condition.

Amilee Konwar, Manas Das*, Debjani Dey, Priyambada Chutia

Department of Zoology, Animal Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, India. Dr. Manas Das, Assistant Professor, Gauhati University

Journal of Bioresources 5(1): 56-64(2018)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: manasdasne@gmail.com

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Abstract: Water pollution is brought about mostly by industrial, domestic and other such anthropogenic activities. Whatever be the source of the pollutants, the effect is widespread in the water body and its biotic components. The first effect of pollutants may have on water is to change its natural pH to either a more acidic or alkaline pH. The present study investigated the effect of experimentally maintained acidic (pH 6.4) and basic (pH 8.0) conditions on the activities of alkaline transferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), the anti-oxidant enzymes and non- enzymatic and anti-oxidant assays in the liver, kidney and intestine of the mud eel (Monopterus cuchia ). Fishes were exposed to high and low pH for the particular period, anti-oxidant marker enzymes like catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) concentration showed a decreasing pattern whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed a subsequent increase initially followed by a marked diminution. The non enzymatic marker reduced glutathione (GSH) markedly decreased in experimental condition. In the plasma, ALT and AST and the lipid peroxidation marker namely malondialdehyde (MDA) showed significant increase as compared to the control. Thus the physiological changes observed during the study period establish that the fishes exposed to both the measures of pH were under acute stress.

Key words: Catalase (CAT), Glutathione-s-transferase (GST), Glutathione (GSH), Lipid peroxidation, Oxidative stress

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