Volume 4:Issue 2
July-December 2017

Rajiv Gandhi University

Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity

Half yearly Journal published in June and December


Siang River System in Eastern Himalaya: Ethos and Concern

Hirendra Nath Sarma


Email: hirendra.sarma@rgu.ac.in


Review article

Microorganisms in Arsenic Bioremediation with Special Reference to Filamentous Fungi: A Review

Biswajit Pramanik1, Karuna Shrivastava1*, Sorokhaibam Sureshkumar Singh1 and Mohammad Latif Khan2

1Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (Deemed University), Nirjuli – 791109, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

2Department of Botany, Dr. H. S. Gour University, Sagar-470 003, Madhya Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 4(2): 1-12 (2017)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: ks@nerist.ac.in

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Abstract: Arsenic pollution of groundwater and other water sources is one of the biggest environmental disasters people are facing presently. About 140 million people around the world have been exposed to arsenic contaminated groundwater. Due to its carcinogenic and toxic effects to human and animal’s health, remediation of arsenic-contaminated water has become of prime importance. The north-eastern region of India has long been reported with high level of arsenic contaminations. In a preliminary survey conducted in Arunachal Pradesh (Papum Pare and Lower Subansiri districts) and Assam (North Lakhimpur district), arsenic contamination was detected as high as 193.2 ppb which is manifolds higher than the arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for public water supplies (10 ppb). Therefore, this paper is presented with the aims to review current status of arsenic pollution worldwide with reference to north eastern India along with various arsenic remediation techniques currently available (conventional and modern). In recent years, bioremediation techniques have emerged out as modern innovative technologies for the removal of arsenic from aqueous system. Many highly arsenic resistant microbes (bacteria, fungi and algae) have been reported with high arsenic tolerance capacity and/or ability to oxidize arsenite to less toxic forms. Among them, fungi could be potential agent of arsenic bioremediation due to their mycelia nature, high growth capacities and production of variety of enzymes, however less emphasis has been given to this group of organisms. Thus this review mainly emphasises the role of filamentous fungi as an effective agent and potentially be used for the bioremediation of arsenic from arsenic contaminated ground water.

Key words: Algae, Arsenic pollution, Bacteria, Bioremediation, Filamentous fungi

Original Research Article

Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Inhabiting the Rhizosphere of Panax pseudoginseng and Solanum khasianum Plants Growing Under Natural Conditions in Ziro, Arunachal Pradesh, India

1Millo Merry, 2Vinay Shankar and 1*Heikham Evelin

1Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Itanagar – 791 112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

2Department of Botany, Deshbandhu College, University of Delhi, New Delhi – 110 024, India

Journal of Bioresources 4(2): 13-19 (2017)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: meevelin@gmail.com

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Abstract: Worldwide, the demand for herbal products is increasing which may result in over exploitation of many traditionally used and pharmaceutically important plant species and destruction of their habitat. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance the growth and productivity of medicinal plants. This calls for the need for identification and culture of AMF present in roots of naturally occurring plants. With this background, the present study was aimed to investigate the diversity of AMF inhabiting the rhizosphere of Panax pseudoginseng and Solanum khasianum plants growing under natural conditions in Ziro, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Rhizosphere soil of the Panax pseudoginseng and Solanum khasianum growing areas were collected from five sites in Ziro and were subjected to wet sieving and decanting method to isolate AMF spores. The identity of spores was identified morphologically by comparing the descriptions in INVAM. Spore density and species richness were also calculated. The rhizosphere of both the plants was populated with AMF spores belonging to Glomus, Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Entrophspora were found. S. khasianum plants harboured more AMF spores than the P. pseudoginseng. Glomus and Acaulospora were the most commonly found AMF species for both plants. These findings indicate that P. pseudoginseng and Solanum khasianum plants are rich in AMF diversity, therefore selecting and inoculating the plants with suitable microbial strains could be of immense importance in enhancing their growth and productivity.

Key words: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Diversity, Panax pseudoginseng, Solanum khasianum

Original Research Article

Seasonal Abundance and Diversity of Zooplankton Communities along with Physico-Chemical Assessment of a Sacred Temple Tank of Ponda Taluka, Goa

Kunja Priolkar and I. K. Pai*

Department of Zoology, Goa University, Goa-403 206

Journal of Bioresources 4(2): 20-29 (2017)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: ikpai@unigoa.ac.in

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Abstract: Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton. Plankton are organisms drifting in oceans, seas, and bodies of freshwater. They are “wanderer” or “drifter”. Individual zooplankton are usually microscopic, but some (such as jellyfish) are larger and visible with the naked eye. They are ecologically important and include members from small protozoans and large metazoans, which may be holoplanktonic or meroplanktonic. Further they can be either the nekton or a sessile, benthic existence. Although zooplanktons are primarily transported by ambient water currents, many have locomotion like diel vertical migration. India is synonymous with temples and most of the temples are having sacred temple tanks from where, the water is being used for temple rituals. As there are hardly any ecological studies on these tanks. Goa, the land of sun sand and sea is also known for having several temples and the town of Ponda is known as temple town of Goa. In the present study, physicochemical analysis along with qualitative and quantitative studies of zooplankton of Shri Shantadurga temple tank, Kavalem Ponda, Goa, for two annual cycles was carried out. The results revealed that, there was seasonal variation in most of physico-chemical parameters analysed. Using microscopic taxonomical studies of zooplankton, investigations revealed that, 14 species of Zooplankton belonging to three major groups i.e., Copepoda (seven sps.), Rotifera (four sps.) and Cladocera (three sps.) were present. Among zooplankton, Copepod group was dominant. Zooplankton dominated in dry seasons due to favourable growth conditions.

Key words: Density, Diversity, Physico-chemical parameters, Temple tank, Zooplankton

Original Research Article

Odorrana arunachalensis: A New Species of Cascade Frog (Anura:Ranidae) from Talle Valley Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, India

1Bhaskar Saikia, 2, *Bikramjit Sinha and 1Ilona Jacinta Kharkongor

1Zoological Survey of India, North Eastern Regional Centre, Risa Colony, Shillong 793003, INDIA

2Zoological Survey of India, Arunachal Pradesh Regional Centre, Senki Valley, Itanagar 791113, INDIA

Journal of Bioresources 4(2): 30-41 (2017)     ISSN 2394-4315

Email: bj.sinha@gov.in

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Abstract: The cascade frogs of the genus Odorrana are adapted to life in torrential streams, and are expected to be widely available across the mountainous region of India. However, only 4 species out of the 58 globally recognized species of Odorrana have been reported from the country. Of these 4 species found in the country, only 2 species were originally described from India. In this paper, we are describing a new species of Odorrana from Talle Valley Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh – the north-easternmost State of India. The new species was erected, based on morphological variations from all known or recognized species of the genus, after comparison with the Indian congeners and, through extensive literature consultation, with other congeners. This new species is distinguished from its congeners on the basis of the following morphological features: a medium sized frog; presence of a black inter-orbital band; a pair of discontinuous, black dorsolateral bands; head broader than long; supra-tympanic fold present; tympanum small and depressed, 1/3rd of eye; vomerine teeth present, 45o to choanae; external vocal sac absent; dorsum smooth, with few weak granules on the flanks; no dorsolateral fold; dorsal completely green (brown mottling in female); ventrum white, mottled anteriorly and on thighs; relative finger lengths: I II IV III; toes fully webbed till the discs; eggs creamy in colour, polygonal shaped, smaller eggs are roundish. This new species inhabits mixed wet tropical forest, beside torrent streams. With this new species, the count of Odorrana from India is raised to 5 and, globally to 59 species.

Key words: Biodiversity hotspot, Eastern Himalaya, Green frog, Lower Subansiri district, Northeast India, Protected area.

Original Research Article

Differential Uterine Protein Expression Induced by Crude Bark Extract of Dysoxylum alliarium During Day4-8 of Gestation is Associated with Increased Serum Profile of SGOT & SGPT but not Cellular Toxicity in Rat

Moushumi Das, Kanmuna R. Talukdar, Indira Sarma and Hirendra N. Sarma*

Department of Zoology, Molecular Endocrinology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity, Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar - 791 112, India

Journal of Bioresources 4(2): 42-49 (2017)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: hirendra.sarma@rgu.ac.in

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Abstract: Plants and herbs have formed the basis of various traditional medicine systems and folk medicines that have been practised for thousands of years during the course of human history. Dysoxylum alliarium has been found to be used by the Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh as traditional fertility control drug for domesticated animals. Present study aims at investigating the effects of crude bark extract of Dysoxylum alliarium on the uterine proteins during early gestation in rat (D4 – D8) and hepatic toxicity if any. Methanolic crude bark extract (CBE) was administered to pregnant rats from D1 to D7 of gestation. Administration was done through oral route in a dose of 500mg/Kg body weight every morning in between 7.00 – 9.00 hrs. Samples were collected from D4 to D8 in five different groups. The separation of uterine proteins was performed by SDSPAGE and the serum profile of SGOT and SGPT was analysed. Histological study of liver tissue was done by routine H&E staining to determine the cellular toxicity of the crude bark extract of the plant. The results showed that the CBE stimulates the synthesis of high molecular weight protein on Day 4, 7 and 8 of gestation. The compound(s) responsible for the change of cellular protein profile need to be investigated. Increased level of SGOT and SGPT was reported after the treatment of the CBE. Infiltration of neutrophils in the liver is seen suggesting cellular necrosis, but without evidence. Further study on these aspects may lead to the development of an effective fertility control drug.

Key words: Anti implantation, Crude bark extract, Dysoxylum alliarium , Fertility control, Traditional medicine

Original Research Article

Species of Tari in Arunachal Pradesh: Morphology, Ecology and Toxicity of Entomophagy

Hiren Gogoi*, Bolet Moyong, Kuru Sonia and Chihi Umbrey

Department of Zoology (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rajiv Gandhi University, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 4(2): 50-57 (2017)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: hirengogoi2007@yahoo.co.in

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Abstract: Certain species of insects belonging to the genus Coridius (Hemiptera: Dinidoridae) are locally known as ‘tari’ (in dialect of Adi community) or ‘paahu’ (in dialect of Mishmi tribe) or ‘gandhi puk’ in Arunachal Pradesh. Many people in the region use these insects as food or condiment. The most abundant species of these insects are the Coridius nepalensis (West.) and Coridius singhalanus (Dist.). The less abundant is the C. chinensis (Dallas). People get intoxicated very often after its consumption. It may be due to inter-specific variation of the semiochemicals secreted from the metathoracic glands. Therefore, present work aimed to study the morpho-taxonomy of the most available species to avoid possible intoxication due to misidentification. As the ecology of these species is poorly known, secondary data on its summer habitat, site of oviposition, food resources were also collected from the villagers for further investigation, since detail ecology will be required for hygienic rearing and toxicological study of these species. Morphological study shows that C. nepalensis and C. singhalanus differ in body colour, body size, antennae, wing size and the length of the rostrum. Villagers identified two plants locally known as ‘Adambo’ and ‘Ipheu’ in Idu-Mishmi dialect to be their summer host. They also hinted about its phenotypic plasticity i.e. summer forms and winter forms. Many villagers informed that mating and oviposition occur in the summer habitat on their host plant before leaving for winter habitat. However, some people believe the winter habitat under the dry river bed stones as their mating and oviposition ground. Six percent of the interviewed people experienced intoxication from consumption of ‘tari’. The intoxicated persons due to food poisoning tend to behave like ‘tari’. They try to fly, want to pass through small hole, hide under carpet, misinterpret rope as snake etc. Physician pointed out respiratory tract and stomach to be the target system of the toxins of these insects. Nervous system is known to be affected in severe cases. The semiochemicals present in the metathoracic gland, associated microbial toxin or pesticide residues may be the active compound responsible for intoxication.

Key words: Coridius spp. , Entomophagy, Habitat, Host plant, Oviposition

Original Research Article

Purification and Partial Characterization of Protease Enzyme from the Latex of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. 1753 and Study of Anticoagulation Potential on Human Blood.

Tapak Tamir1*, Sakthivel Kalimuthu2 and Daniel Mize1

1Ecology and Wildlife Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi Central University, Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh-791112, India.

2Biolim Centre of Life Sciences, Ayanavaram, Chennai-600023 TN, India.

Journal of Bioresources 4(2): 58-64 (2017)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: tapaktamir86@gmail.com

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Abstract: The present study was aimed to purify, partially-characterize and to investigate the possible anti-coagulation effect of protease enzyme isolated from latex of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. on human blood. The latex of Jatropha gossypiifolia was obtained by nipping mature leaves near the stem or incision of the bark and branches of the plant, the fluid coming out was collected into a clean sterile test tube. The protease was purified from the latex of Jatropha gossypiifolia right through ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The latex enzyme (protease) was assayed for proteolytic activity using denatured casein as substrate and determined as 0.06 Umg-1. The Milk clotting activity and enzyme optimization was performed. The milk clotting activity was found to be 8.88 Umg-1. Effects of pH and temperature on the purified latex (protease) were determined. The purified protease remained active over a broad range of temperature but had optimum activity at 75 °C and pH 3.0 when casein was used as substrate. The suitability of purified latex as an anticoagulant for biochemical and haematological analyses was determined. Proteases from Jatropha gossypiifolia latex exhibited well-built anticoagulant action. The anticoagulant effect was found to be highest at a concentration of 1.00 ml per ml of blood. Thus, the purified latex of Jatropha gossypiifolia may be suitable as an anticoagulant for haematological analysis. However, further studies are necessary to identify the phytoconstitute with their mechanism of actions responsible for the observed pharmacological activities and any eventual toxic effects that could reduce its medicinal value.

Key words: Ammonium sulphate precipitation, Anticoagulation, Jatropha gossypiifolia , Plant latex, Proteases.

Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. of Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Ayam Victor Singh* and Hage Asha

Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rono Hills, Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh791112, India.

Journal of Bioresources 4(2): 65-72 (2017)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: victor_ayamsingh@yahoo.com

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Abstract: The fruits of Terminalia bellirica are sold in plenty in the local market of Tawang. The local Monpa community uses it as a part of their dietary component, in making pickles and also used by the herbalist in the treatment of various diseases like conjunctivitis, kidney diseases, and constipation. Often diseases induce oxidative stresses but can be counteracted by antioxidants. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the amount of antioxidant percentage present in the fruit of T. belliricaI . The methanol extract of the fruit was prepared and diluted to a working concentration of 1mg/ml, which is further diluted serially to (1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.2 and 15.625) g/ml fractions in methanol. 100 μL of each of the fractions were reacted with 200μl each of 0.1 mM DPPH solution prepared in methanol. After 30 minutes’ incubation in the dark, at room temperature, the absorbance was taken at 517 nm in MultiskanTM spectrophotometer. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard reference. Free radical scavenging activity (% Inhibition) was calculated from the absorbance values using the control as a reference. Logarithmic graphs were drawn between %Inhibition against the concentrations using excel and calibrate the IC50 of both the sample and standard. The result shows a high antioxidant percentage close to the standard. The % inhibition shows a strong positive correlation with the concentration at a low level of significance and with low Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) and high coefficient of determination (R2) values. The qualitative evaluation of the samples for secondary metabolites (flavonoids and phenolics that normally favors antioxidant properties) also shows high positive results.

Key words: Antioxidant activity, DPPH scavenging activity, Flavonoid, Phenolic compounds, Superoxide radical

Original Research Article

Anti-Diabetic Plants Used by Apatani Tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, India

Bipul Ch. Kalita*, Hage Yanka, Gaottham Gogoi, Hui Tag and A. K. Das

Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 4(1): 73-79 (2017)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: bipulchandrakalita@gmail.com

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Abstract: Apatani community is one of the major ethnic communities of Arunachal Pradesh and known for their rich traditional knowledge of natural resources. They have very efficient traditional management and conservation system of bioresources around them. During last few decades there have seen exponential growth of scientific investigation on plants of ethno-medicinal importance in search of active principles for validation of folk claims and in the discovery of new drugs and herbal products. With the establishment of scientific knowledge of physiological and chemical factors behind the occurrence of one of the most vexed chronic ailments of the present century, the traditional healers have also initiated the hunts for potent anti-diabetic plants species growing wild and present in and around their vicinity, which are supposed to be efficacious in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus, thus giving it a traditional touch. During the present study, survey was carried out in the Apatani plateau of Lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh. First hand information was collected from traditional healers and elderly folk people visiting different villages. A total of 30 plant species having apparently anti-diabetic properties and belonging to 25 families have been recorded from the study site. Flowers, leaves, stem, whole aerial parts, roots, rhizomes are used in different preparations to treat the high blood sugar level among the tribal community. The study reveals that the family Cucurbitaceae with 4 species having anti-diabetic properties top the list of families followed by Amaryllidaceous and Lamiaceae with 2 species each.

Key words: Apatani community, Diabetes, Herbal products, Traditional healthcare

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