Volume 3:Issue 1
January-June 2016

Rajiv Gandhi University

Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity

Half yearly Journal published in June and December

Short Communication

New Locality For Near Threatened Cinerous Vulture Aegypius monachus Linnaeus, 1766, In Arunachal Pradesh, India

Daniel Mize*1, Ripin Taba1, Rajat Chetry1 and Hirendra Nath Sarma2

1Ecology & Wildlife Biology Unit, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, India 2Molecular Endocrinology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 3(1): 1-4 (2016)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: mizezoology@yahoo.co.in

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Abstract: The survey of vulture at D’Ering Wildlife Sanctuary located in East Siang, result in the record of a Cinereous VultureAegypius monachus for the first time in the sanctuary. The record of the Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus in the sanctuary is a new information on the distribution range for the species. It is mainly a Eurasian species but has also been reported from different parts of India. Previously, it was reported from eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh but not yet confirm any record from D’Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary and adjacent region. The recent documentation from D’Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary presents the sanctuary as a new locality for Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus in India. However, more observation is required to conclude whether Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus is a winter, resident or vagrant species in D’Ering Wildlife Sanctuary of the state.

Key words: Cinereous Vulture, D’Ering Wildlife Sanctuary, New locality, Vulture

Review Article

An Assessment Of Water, Soil Quality And Biotic Communities Of The Floodplain Wetlands Of The Brahmaputra And Barak Valley Of Assam, India- A Review

Sanghita Dutta, Rajesh Sah and Kali Prasad Sarma*

Department of Environmental Science, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Sonitpur-784 028, Assam

Journal of Bioresources 3(1): 5-15 (2016)    ISSN 2394-4315


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Abstract: An assessment of water, soil quality and biotic communities of floodplain wetlands of the Brahmaputra and Barak Valley of Assam has been reviewed. Brahmaputra valley was found to be more conducive to biological production than that of beels of the Barak valley. The beels of north bank districts of the Brahmaputra valley were relatively more productive compared to the south bank. In general, productivity in terms of phytoplankton density was poor in all the beels of Assam. A rich growth of marginal and submerged vegetation was observed in the floodplain wetlands of Brahmaputra basin. Geochemical characteristics of surface water have been reported for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and total hardness. The order of the abundance of the major cation and anion is as follows: HCO3->SO4 2->Cl->Na+>Ca2+>K+>Mg2+>NO3 - in pre-monsoon and HCO3 ->SO4 2->Cl- >Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+>NO3- in post-monsoon. Both carbonate and silicate weathering occur in the wetlands although carbonate weathering was found to be dominant in post-monsoon. According to Gibbs diagram, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction dominance. The Piper- trilinear diagram indicated that the water samples belong to Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl--SO4 2- type or facies in pre-monsoon while in post-monsoon most of the samples show temporary and permanent hardness due to Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 -and Ca2+-Mg2+-SO4 2- respectively, indicating a mixed type of water. Based on the water quality index (WQI) on some wetlands of the Brahmaputra valley, Deepor Beel and wetlands of Kaziranga National Park shows poor water quality.

Key words: Barak valley, Brahmaputra, Macrophytes, Planktons, Sediment, Wetlands

Original Research Article

Ethnomedicobotany And Phytochemical Screening Of Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. ex Buch.–Ham From Arunachal Pradesh, India

Gaottham Gogoi* and Arup Kumar Das

Department of Botany (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh - 791112, Arunachal Pradesh

Journal of Bioresources 3(1): 16-23(2016)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: gaottham1@gmail.com

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Abstract: Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham commonly known as meba/mibia by the Nyishi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh is a large evergreen tree with fluted trunk with short spreading branches. Leaf mid vein is stout, prominent and lateral veins are distinct. Fruit is globose, dark yellow in colour when ripen. Present study highlights the ethnomedicobotanical use of G. pedunculata by the Nyishi community of Papum Pare district of Arunachal Pradesh. The study reveals the use of fruits and leaves in stomach ailments, urinary troubles, jaundice and fever. The mature fruit and tender leaves are also eaten raw and as vegetables. For carrying out the qualitative phytochemical screening, petroleum ether, methanol, chloroform & water extracts were used. Of the four extracts, water and methanol extracts show high affirmative results. Phytochemical screening of fruits, leaves and bark exhibit the presence of bioactive compounds like alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponin, phenolic compounds, proteins along with fixed oils & fats, glycosides and amino acid. Hence the present findings may be helpful to develop conservation and management strategies as well as benefits to pharmaceutical industries.

Key words: Arunachal Pradesh, Ethnomedicobotany, Garcinia pedunculata , Nyishi, Phytochemical screening

Original Research Arcticle

Use Pattern Of Faunal Resources By Tribal And Its Impact On Biodiversity In Dampa Tiger Reserve In Mizoram, India

G.S. Solanki*, Danny Lalchhandama and Lalnunpuii

Department of Zoology, Mizoram University, Aizawl-796004, Mizoram, India

Journal of Bioresources 3(1): 24-29 (2016)     ISSN 2394-4315

Email: gssolanki02@yahoo.co.in

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Abstract: We conducted a study on use pattern of faunal resources by tribal communities in Dampa Tiger Reserve (DTR) in Mizoram, India. Its impact on biodiversity of the region was assessed. Study area is a part of Indo-Myanmar hotspot region. Mizo, Bru and Chakma tribes inhabits inside the buffer area of the reserve. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect information from inhabitants on the basis of 10% of the households. Average loss of animal diversity is very high i.e. 525 individuals per year. Commonly extracted animals are Wild boar, Barking deer, Serow, Sambar and Monkeys. 86% of animals extracted are mammals. Of them, 21% are primates, 26.3% ungulates, 21% carnivores. Persons up to 30 years do not participate in hunting and 40-50 years age group predominates among hunters. Average size of hunting party is 2.63 persons. Seasonality in hunting is very evident; primates are hunted during summer and winter. Relation between the distance of villages from core area and rate of hunting is insignificant. Details of therapeutic activities such as methods of process, mode of application and type of ailments to cure are discussed in the paper. Socially amicable alternatives for livelihood of the residents are suggested as effective conservation measures.

Key words: Biodiversity, Conservation measure, Dampa Tiger Reserve, Hunting, Mizoram, Traditional knowledge

Original Research Article

Protein Requirement Of Angel Fish Pterophyllum scalare (Schultze, 1823) (Perciformes: Cichlidae)

I.K. Pai*1, K.N. Mohanta2 and Maryem Shaikh Altaf1

1Department of Zoology, Goa University, Goa-403 206, India 2ICAR Complex, Ella, Goa-403 402

Journal of Bioresources 3(1): 30-34 (2016)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: ikpai@unigoa.ac.in

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Abstract: Since time immemorial, fishery, which helps in food security and poverty alleviation, has been one of the oldest professions of man and remained to be so, even today. Further, ornamental fisheries has also provides ample scope for improving economy and employment generation. Today, Fish culturing is a major part of aquaculture. Like in other animals, in fishes too, food determines various physiological, developmental or even reproductive aspects. So, several attempts have been made by various workers, to alter food and other environmental conditions to determine optimum growth. However, as there are hardly any attempts to analyze suitable protein requirements for having optimum health and development in fish diet, thus, an attempt has been made to determine the optimum protein requirement for the health growth and development in one of the popular aquarium angel fishes,Pterophyllus scalare by altering protein and lipid contents from 30%-40% protein and 6% -10% lipids in their feed. The parameters such as body weight gain, food conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency rate (PER) were analyzed. The studies indicate that, the maximum weight gain was at 35% Protein + 6% Lipid (1.99 ± 0.04 g), maximum FCR was 1.71 ± 0.03% at 40% P + 10% L; SGR and PER was maximum at 30% P + 6% L was 2.60 ± 0.06% and 2.33 ± 0.04%), suggesting that food with 30% protein and 6% Lipid is ideal for angel fish for its optimum growth.

Key words: Angel fish, Fish food, Protein requirement, Pterophyllum scalare

Original research Article

Screening Of Industrially Important Enzymes Of Potential Marine Actinobacteria Of The Neil Island, The Andamans, India

Rajagopal Gobalakrishnan1, Ganesan Radha2, Kannan Sivakumar1, Naresh2, Rashmi R. Rao*1 and Lakshmanan Kannan1

1Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai - 608 502, Tamilnadu, India 2Department of Biotechnology, AVS College of Arts and Science, Salem-636 106, Tamilnadu, India

Journal of Bioresources 3(1): 35-45 (2016)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: rashu249@gmail.com

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Abstract: Marine actinobacteria are efficient producers of important secondary metabolites that show a range of biological activities and capable of catalyzing various biochemical reactions with novel enzymes. With this in mind, present study was carried out to screen the industrially important enzymes [L-asparaginase, Cellulase, Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) and Chitinase] of the marine actinobacteria, isolated from Neil island, the Andamans. Eight morphologically distinct actinobacterial strains (AUANI-1 to AUANI-8) were subjected to enzyme screening for L-asparaginase, cellulase, DNase and chitinase activity, using spot inoculation assay, with different enzymatic media. Among them, strain AUANI-1 showed higher L-asparaginase enzyme production with 12 mm of clear zone, strain AUANI-5 showed higher cellulase enzyme production with 18 mm of clear zone, strain AUANI-7 showed higher DNase enzyme production with 12 mm of clear zone and strain AUANI-8 showed higher chitinase enzyme production with 17 mm of clear zone. Based on the enzyme production performance, these four potential strains were selected for conventional identification. Results were: AUANI-1 –Streptomyces nodosus, AUANI-5-S. craterifer, AUANI-7-S. moderatus and AUANI-8-S. aureofasciculus. Thus, the present study concludes that the sediment samples of the Neil island, the Andamans contain a good member of culturable strains of Streptomyces . These strains are capable of producing different enzymesviz. L-asparaginase, cellulase, DNase and chitinase. These potential strains can be further evaluated for commercial scale production of enzymes that can be employed in varied biotechnological and industrial applications.

Key words: Actinobacteria, cellulase, chitinase, DNase, L-asparaginase, Neil island

Original Research Article

Rearing Of Eri Silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) In Arunachal Pradesh: A Study In Papumpare District

Taba Meth and Hiren Gogoi*

Department of Zoology (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono-Hills, Doimukh-791112, Arunachal Pradesh

Journal of Bioresources 3(1): 46-52 (2016)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: hirengogoi2007@yahoo.co.in

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Abstract: Eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is known to be reared in different parts of the world with diverse expectations for its silk fibre, food and biomaterials. In India, eri silkworms are reared in many parts particularly in northeast region. In Arunachal Pradesh Nyishi, Apatani, Aka, Sherdukpen, Bugun and certain other communities wear the eri silk clothes during religious community festivals and ritual events with traditional fervour. However, proper documentation on rearing practice of eri silkworm followed in the region is found to be missing. Therefore, realising the importance of eri silk in the region, a questionnaire based and self monitored survey was conducted in Papumpare district, Arunachal Pradesh to understand the rearing technique, innovations and beliefs associated with eri silkworm in the region. Indigenous rearing technique was mostly found to be similar with that of Assam in certain aspects like selection of food plants, larvae rearing and spunning technique. However, outdoor mountages constructed from banana leaves, use of traditional degumming ingredients prepared from ash of banana leaves, rice husk etc. called “chola” or “pila”, social beliefs and taboos are unique to this region. Most of the farmers were found to lack the scientific knowledge regarding disease of the silkworm and modern eri silk spunning techniques. Microscopic observation of the hemolymph of diseased larvae sample collected from farmers showed the infection from bacteria and fungus. Similarly, most of the farmers were also found not to be aware of government schemes provided to support the farmers. This indicates the need of training regarding the effective rearing technique and silkworm diseases.

Key words: mountages, pathogens, S. c. ricini , seed cocoon, status, taboo

Original Research Article

Habitat Preference Of Tokay Gecko (Gekko gecko) In Barak Valley Of Assam, India

Biswajit Singh and P. Choudhury*

Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar -788011, India

Journal of Bioresources 3(1): 53-59 (2016)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: parthankar@rediffmail.com

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Abstract: Study of habitat characteristics and distribution pattern of Tokay Gecko (Gekko gecko ) was carried out in Barak valley of southern Assam by transect method. 112 individuals were recorded during the study period. Out of which, highest individuals were found in Irongamara of Cachar district. In the study area, the average encounter rate was 6.92/km. Gekko gecko is distributed thoughout the Barak valley. In addition, it was found in houses like mud house, pucca house and RCC buildings, irrespective of trees which is its natural habitat. Mud house as their most preferred habitat as they were mostly found perching on the mud walls, individuals were found perching at medium level height i.e., 2m above the ground . Trees with good canopy cover are their other suitable habitat. Among plants, the species was more abundant in Ficus sp. due to moderately high temperature and moderate moisture inhabiting in the hole. Most of the calls were given during evening hours, which is the peak hour for feeding by clinching on the outside wall of the house at night. The species mainly feed on the insects. Cockroach, moth and spider are recorded as their favourite prey. The local village men have a social taboo for the species and it is believed that it occurrence in houses bring ‘good fortune’ for the family. Of late, severe illegal trading of the animal has brought about drastic decline of the species from the study area.

Key words: Assam, Conservation, Ficus sp., Gecko, Herpetofauna, Mud house

Original Research Article

A Report On Coleopteran Species Composition In Rono-Hills, Arunachal Pradesh With Perspective On Ecological And Economic Aspects

Minam Tayeng* and Hiren Gogoi

Department of Zoology (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar – 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 3(1): 72-79 (2016)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: minamtayeng@yahoo.com

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Abstract: The primary objective of the present study was to focus on the species composition of the coleopteran species in Rono-Hills, Papumpare district, Arunachal Pradesh with a perspective to know the economic and ecological value of the coleopteran insect community in the region. For this, field based survey was conducted from the month January to December during the year 2015. Insect monitoring was based on Pollard walk during morning hours starting from 7 am to 9 am. During the survey undertaken, 30 species of Coleoptera belonging to 12 families were recorded. Cerambycidae was the dominant family representing 7 species followed by family Scarabaeidae (6), Carabidae (4), Lucanidae (3), Curculionidae (2), Coccinellidae (2), Passalidae (1), Elateridae (1), Buprestidae (1), Chrysomelidae (1), Erotylidae (1) and Trictenotomidae (1). Eleven species of Coleoptera were documented in the grassland, 9 species in mixed forest, 5 species each in open land and cropland habitat. The cultivated crops conceded were theLuffa acutangula andAbelmoschus esculentus. Among the coleopteran insects collected, 6 species viz. Popillia japonica, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, Xylotrupes gideon , Coccinella sp ., Triplex collaris and Apriona germarii were identified as pests of crops and plantations; 1 species, Aulacophora palliata as crop pollinator of the cropLuffa acutangula along with 2 species of dung beetle viz. Onthophagus taurus and Scarabaeus sp. of ecological importance. Thus, the survey indicated the need of management practice of these insects to gain more economic benefit and ecological service in the region.

Key words: Coleoptera, Ecological service, Habitat, Pest, Pollinator

Original Research Article

Variation In Heartwood And Oil Content Of Santalum album L. In Assam and Karnataka

C. Sandeep1, Raju Gogoi2, Riajur Rahman2, R.K. Boruah3 and Syam Viswanath*1

1Tree Improvement and Genetics Division, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India 2Department of Geography, Diphu Government College, Diphu, Assam, India 3Department of Environment and Forests, Karbi Anglong, Assam, India

Journal of Bioresources 3(1): 80-88 (2016)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: syam.viswanath@gmail.com

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Abstract: Santalum album L. (East Indian Sandalwood) which is naturally distributed in the three South Indian states (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala), has an important place in the culture and heritage of Karnataka state since ages. The economic value ofSantalum album L. arises from the oil present in heartwood of older age classes. However the value of the tree in terms of heartwood and oil content when grown outside its natural distribution range is not well known. Six girth classes of sandalwood trees were selected to estimate heartwood percent and oil yield for all the four locations viz. Assam (Diphu) and Karnataka (Bangalore, Shivamogga and Mysore). Core samples were taken at the level of breast height (1.76 m) using Haglof increment borer and oil content was estimated by simple hexane extract method (Shankaranarayana et.al ., 1997). From the current study it was observed that the sample trees from all the locations showed heartwood initiation at the girth class 41-50 cm. More than 50% heartwood was noticed in the girth class of trees 51-60 cm and 70% heartwood in the girth class 71-80 cm and the oil content of these trees were around 1.5 to 3.0 %. Maximum oil content of 4% was noticed in the trees of girth class 91-100 cm. The rate of heartwood formation, trend of increase in heartwood and oil content percent from the Assam populations showed more or less similar pattern to the populations found in Karnataka.

Key words: Assam, Heartwood, Karnataka, Oil content, Santalum album

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