Volume 2:Issue 2
July-December 2015

Rajiv Gandhi University

Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity

Half yearly Journal published in June and December

Short Communication

Ethnobotanical Uses Of Poisonous Plants In Arunachal Pradesh

Hui Tag1*, Jambey Tsering1, Baikuntha Jyoti Gogoi 2, Bipul Kalita1, Pallabi Kalita 3 and Vijay Veer 2

Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University1, Rono Hills, Itanagar- 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.
Defence Research Laboratory2, Post Bag No. 2, Tezpur- 784001, Assam, India.
Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity, Faculty of Life Science, Rajiv Gandhi University3, Rono Hills, Doimukh791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

Journal of Bioresources 2(2): 1-5(2015)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: huitag2008rgu@gmail.com

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Abstract: North East India is a rich phyto-diversity area positioned in the Indo-Burma and Himalayan Biodiversity hotspot. This paper discusses about the cross cultural ethnobotanical uses of 33 poisonous plant species by three local communities viz Monpa, Nyishi and Adi tribes of Arunachal Pradesh, mainly found in Tawang, W/Kameng, L/Subansiri, U/ Subansiri/ E/Siang and W/Siang Districts. Aesculus assamica, Derris scandens, Gymnocladus burmanicus, Persicaria hydropiper and Zanthoxylum rhetsa are widely used as fish poison by the Nyishi and Adi whereas the root of Aconitum ferox is used for traditional hunting and local warfare by all three communities.

Key words: Poisonous plants, Ethnobotanical knowledge, Arunachal Pradesh

Short Communication

Diabetes Mellitus - Prospect Of Natural Products As Novel Drug For DM.

Jayashree Dutta and MC Kalita

Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam, India.

Journal of Bioresources 2(2): 6-8(2015)    ISSN 2394-4315


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Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is heterogeneous primary disorder of carbohydrate metabolism with multiple etiological factors. It generally involves absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion or action. Whatever the cause, diabetes ultimately leads to hyperglycemia which is the landmark of this disease syndrome. The objective of this study is to document the herbs that are generally used for the treatment of diabetes.

Key words: Postprandial hyperglycemia,  -amylase,  -glucosidase, Medicinal plants

Review Article

The Need To Explore The Fungal Facet Of Biodiversity Of Arunachal Pradesh

T. S. Suryanarayanan1* M. B. Govindarajulu1 and N. Thirunavukkarasu2

1Vivekananda Institute of Tropical Mycology, Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith, Chennai 600 004, Tamilnadu, India.

2Postgraduate and Research Department of Botany, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College, Chennai 600 004, Tamilnadu, India.

Journal of Bioresources 2(2): 9-17(2015)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: t_sury2002@yahoo.com

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Abstract: Fungi, due their unique method of vegetative growth, absorptive nutrition and the presence chitinous cell wall differ from the other eukaryotic organisms considerably and hence are placed in a kingdom of their own. Fungi perform many ecosystem functions including degradation of macromolecules in nature culminating in nutrient recycling and aid in the growth and performance of plants by forming mycorrhizal associations. Fungi are a source of many novel secondary metabolites exhibiting antibiotic, anticancer, and cholesterol reducing properties. Many fungal metabolites have been successfully marketed as pharmaceutical products. Fungi also produce many enzymes which are used by industries in various processes. Despite such desirable technological properties, fungi are not given due importance in biodiversity enumeration and conservation programmes. It is estimated that there are about 1.5 million species of fungi on this planet; of this, only 7% is currently known to science. It is essential to look for the undescribed fungi since many of these could represent new species harbouring novel genes which could find use in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. Places with rich biodiversity should be explored for novel fungal species and varieties. Here we stress the importance of exploring the fungal wealth of biodiversityrich Arunachal Pradesh by identifying some of the environments and habitats which need to be studied. A collection of fungal cultures isolated from the less-studied and extreme habitats of Arunachal Pradesh could be created with the help of students and faculty; these could later be screened for the production of industrially important bioactive metabolites and enzymes. Key words: Biodiversity, Fungi, Mycorrhiza, Lichen, Endophyte

Key words: Biodiversity, Fungi, Mycorrhiza, Lichen, Endophyte

Original Research Article

Bioefficacy Potential Of Andrographis paniculata Burmf. Against Agrotis spinifera Hubn. Larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

*Kamal Choudhury

Department of Zoology, B. Borooah College, Guwahati-781007, Assam, India.

Journal of Bioresources 2(2): 18-23(2015)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: kamalchou@rediffmail.com

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Abstract: Agrotis spinifera is a challenging insect pest belonging to the family Noctuidae, the larvae of which cause severe damage to cabbage, cauliflower and potato plants. Crude petroleum ether extract of the leaf and tender shoot of Andrographis paniculata , (Acanthaceae) a common medicinal plant of North-East India with bitter principles was applied using both topical application and food leaf soaking/dip methods against the larvae of this common cut worm, Agrotis spinifera . The extract not only found to have its effect on growth and metamorphic processes but also have fatal effect on the larval stages of this polyphagous pest species. On topical application in lower dose (30mg/g of larval weight), the crude extract of A. paniculata appeared to have no effect on normal moulting process while in moderate dose (35mg, 40mg and 45mg/g of larval weight) the extract caused delay in moulting to successive developmental stages and also showed some pupae with deformities. In higher dose ( 50mg/g of larval weight) a number of the treated larvae died without moulting. When the crude extract was applied to soak the food leaves and fed the larvae, in low dose the larvae showed delayed ecdysis, but the higher dose led the larvae to avoid food. The present study showed that petroleum ether extract of leaf and tender shoot of A. paniculata may be highlighted as an ecofriendly phytoproduct in botanical control strategy of A. spinifera .

Key words: Andrographis paniculata , Polyphagous, Ecdysis, Food leaf rejection, Botanical control

Original Research Article

Assessment Of Antivenom Potential Of Anthocephalus cadamba Leaves Extract: A Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants For The Treatment Of Snakebite Patients

Diganta Das, Md. Minhaj Ansari, Nima D. Namsa, Mukherjee, A.K and Robin Doley*

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur-784028, Sonitpur, Assam, India

Journal of Bioresources 2(2): 24-32(2015)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: doley@tezu.ernet.in

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Abstract: Snakebite is a major socio medical problem and use of commercially available antivenom is only the source of treatment, which has its own limitations. In India, medical facilities are inadequate and people in rural areas mostly depend on traditional healers and herbal antidotes. We have previously documented the medicinal plants used by the traditional healers for treatment of snakebite patients in Morigaon district of Assam, India. However, the traditional use of these medicinal plants lacks scientific evidence to support this claim. In the present study we have screened these medicinal plants for their anti-snake venom property. Various extracts were prepared using aqueous and organic solvents from the plant parts, which are used for treatment of snakebite patients by local healers. The extracts were dissolved in a saline solution (0.9% NaCl) and tested for their anti-snake venom activities. Out of the 19 plants screened, only 5 plants were found to possess phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibition property. The methanol extract of leaf of Anthocephalus cadamba (ACME) showed the highest inhibition of crude venom PLA2 activity. ACME was also found to inhibit the direct and indirect haemolytic activity of crude venom. Other important properties of “Big four” crude venom such as proteolytic activity and anticoagulation were not inhibited. Invivo- neutralization of lethality shows that ACME was ineffective against Naja naja and Bungarus caeruleus venoms but partially effective against Daboia russelli and Echis carinatus venoms at doses tested under a given experimental condition. The anti-snake venom properties of ACME may be attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds.

Key words: Snake venom, Snakebite therapy, Anti-snake venom, Big four, Anthocephalus cadamba

Original Research Article

A Study On Abnormal Structures Developed In Symbiont Bearing Benthic Foraminifera From Andaman Sea, India

P. Mothilal Yuvaraja1* and N. Ramanujam2

1 Department of Zoology, (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar – 791 112;
1,2Department of Disaster Management, Pondicherry University (A Central University), Brookshabad campus, postbox no 26, Junglighat, Port Blair, Andaman

Journal of Bioresources 2(2): 33-40(2015)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: marineyuva@gmail.com

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Abstract: The foraminifers are Protozoa with a shell (test) that consists of consecutive chambers that intercommunicate through oral cavity called foraminifera. The chambers are separated from each other by partitions called septa. The last chamber communicates with the exterior through one or several apertures. Cytoplasm that completely fills all the chambers emerges through these exterior apertures. Outside of the test the cytoplasm and emits as fine filamentous granular and reticulate pseudopodia. These pseudopodia often contain grains or fine particles of various kinds and play an important role in maintaining the living organism: movement, food supply, construction of new chambers, etc . Symbiotic algae (dinoflagellates) are often associated with the cytoplasm. The life cycle of the Foraminifera involves an alternation of generations. Foraminifera are broadly classified as planktonic and benthic. For the present study benthic foraminifera from the study area have harboured photosynthetic algae. The study has been carried out in the Andaman Sea, India. The samples were collected by Vanveen grab method during pre monsoon season at three different areas of different depth of South Andaman. The study has been carried out structural variation and symbiotic relationship algae. The study showed structural adaptations of the foraminiferans in the form of micro boring, pitted surface and tunnels in the shells of perforate and imperforate species. The remnant route system of the foraminiferans is adapted by symbiotic algae to uptake of CO2 during the process of photosynthesis. Activities of symbiotic algae is light dependent and hence when light compensation is reached boring into the shell was stopped in the form of micro bores and diverted into the tunnels. These micro features in the foraminifer’s shells were used for passage of CO2 for photosynthesis from the surrounding seawater. The results showed that the imperforate foraminiferan species have more adaptations than the perforate species.

Key words: Benthic foraminifera, Micro boring, Tunnelling, Andaman sea

Original Research Article

In Vitro Detection Studies And In Silico Approaches To Evaluate Interactions Of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin (CPE) To Human Claudin – 4

Niharika Sharma1*, Biplob Ozah 2, Like Geiyi 2 and Nabajyoti Goswami 3

1 Bioinformatics Center, Faculty of Life Science, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Itanagar – 791 112, Arunachal Pradesh;
2 Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University (Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity), Rono Hills, Itanagar-791 112;
3 College of Veterinary Science, Khanapara, Assam.

Journal of Bioresources 2(2): 41-49(2015)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: niharika.aijoni@gmail.com

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Abstract: Indicator bacteria are used to estimate the levels of faecal contamination in water. They are not dangerous but are used to indicate presence of a health risk. In the current study, efforts has been made to determine the presence of faecal indicator bacteria, like Clostridium perfringens , in two water samples of Nirjuli P-sector, District-Papum Pare, Arunachal Pradesh. Work has been restricted to simply check the presence or absence of faecal indicator group of microbes in the sample, rather going to the details of detection of particular microbe or studying the water quality. Results were found to be positive, indicating an evidence for the presence of faecal contaminants and thus has also cleared the path for further investigation on this topic by specialized methods. Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for causing human food poisoning. Recent studies revealed that CPE specifically destroy those cancer cells which consist a protein named Claudin (Cld). In this study, also an attempt has been made to find out a proper binding mode of CPE with human Claudin 4/Cld-4. Studies were conducted on docking interactions followed by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for 10ns between the homology modeled Cld-4 and CPE. Results showed that both the complex was well comparable, but for methods like MD, 10ns was insufficient for observing conformational changes. So, we have concluded the results with basic comparisons to have future exploration on this topic using computational methods.

Key words: Clostridium perfringens, Enterotoxin, Claudin 4, Homology modeling, Docking, Molecular dynamics simulations.

Original Research Article

Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Similarities Of Polymorphic Butterfly Papilio polytes (Papilionidae: Lepidoptera) From Eastern Himalaya Of Arunachal Pradesh, India.

Sanjay Talukdar* and Hirendra Nath Sarma

Department of Zoology, Center with Potential for Excellence in Biodiversity,
Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar – 791 112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 2(2): 50-61(2015)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: sanjayshreet@gmail.com

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Abstract: Present investigation was emphasized to establish the morphological and genetic distances and relationship among the female polymorphic forms (Stichius & Cyrus) and male Papilio polytes butterfly of eastern Himalayan region of India. Part of eastern Himalayan region belonging to Arunachal Pradesh is recognized as a biodiversity hotspot in India. Papilio polytes monomorphic male with two polymorphic female is available in this eastern Himalayan region. It has been hypothesized that these polymorphic forms has genetic distances and relationship, that may be the eastern Himalayan habitat specific. Specimens were collected from different parts (western, central and eastern) of Arunachal Pradesh invariably of altitude ranges from 1100m, 750m and 185m and climate differences (average temperature 170C, 220C and 22.80C) of the state. Morphometric studies were confined to measurement of total body length and wing span of both hind wing and fore wing. Protein profile has been studied by single dimensional SDS-PAGE. The genomic DNA isolated was studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis using the designed primers of related species of butterflies available in India. Study on morphometry indicated differences in size and shape of both females as well as male. The result of the SDS-PAGE showed differences in the protein profile among females and male. A high degree of genetic polymorphism has been detected in the result produced by the RAPD-PCR using three primers RAPD1, RAPD6, RAPD7. The variability of both polymorphic forms and male Papilio polytes was conformed by similarity coefficient.

Key words: Morphomerty, Protein profile, RAPD-PCR, Dendrogram, Primer.

Original Research Article

Significance Of Mixed-Cropping In Jhum Based Traditional Agroforestry In Tirap And Longding District Of Arunachal Pradesh, India

Tonlong Wangpan and Sumpam Tangjang*

Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Journal of Bioresources 2(2): 62-73(2015)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: Sumpam@gmail.com

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Abstract: Jhum based traditional agro-forestry is considered to be a key element of farming system with the potential for sustainability and improved livelihoods among the indigenous Noctes and Wancho s. The multi-cropping is prominent and a general rule offering opportunities for the cultivation of a wide variety of local crops including cereals, millets, vegetables, moilseeds and tuber crops. Owing to its rich biodiversity and availability of vast plant resources, including crop diversities in this region, it becomes necessary to collect and records the valuable resources before this traditional system disappears from its very existence. During the survey and exploration trip the Jhum fields of 28 remote hamlets were visited to collect local landraces and traditional varieties of all major crops and vegetables of agricultural as well as horticultural importance. A total of 140 plant species are being intercropped, maintained and conserved by indigenous farmers actively involved in jhumming . Among the collected crop materials, germplasm of Oryza sativa L., Millets, Colacasia esculanta L., Capsicum annuum L. and Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burk showed a wide range of variability. There is an immediate requirement of well designed, integrated strategy of production, processing and marketing to excite the full potential of these crops particularly with reference to their contribution to food self-sufficiency.

Key words: Jhum , Indigenous knowledge, Mixed-cropping

Case Study Report

Fodder Plants Of Mithun Bos Frontalis Lambert, 1804: A Case Study Of West Siang, Arunachal Pradesh

Ripin Taba1, Abprez T Kimsing1, Talo Biju1, Jacob Ngukir1, Tapak Tamir 1, Hui Tag 2 , Temin Payum1 and Daniel Mize1 *

Ecology and Wildlife Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, India.
2 Higher Plant Diversity & Validation Unit, Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

Journal of Bioresources 2(2): 74-78(2015)    ISSN 2394-4315

Email: mizezoology@yahoo.co.in

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Abstract: The present study was carried out with purpose to document the fodder plants of Mithun Bos frontalis and to understand its foraging habit and habitat requirements. During the study 42 species of plants belongs to 16 families were documented. Analysis of data showed that out of the 42 species, 17 species were trees, 11 species were shrubs, 8 species were herbs, 4 species were climbers and 2 species were creepers. Mithun Bos frontalis always browses around to locate a specific fodder plants than grazing at one site for longer time to forage and consumed fresh and tender leaves. Heavy rain with humidity, hilly terrain with elevation ranging between 200-2000 msl with dense tropical and semi tropical evergreen rainforest forest enriched with perennial fresh water sources like lakes, spring, streams and small rivers have been considered as major attributing factors in mithun habitat requirement.

Key words: Bos frontalis , Fodder, Wild plant, Browsing, Habitat requirements

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